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Matter and Measurements

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  1. Matter and Measurements

  2. Matter and Energy - Vocabulary • Chemistry • Matter • Energy • Natural Law-(scientific law) • Observation, Hypothesis, Theory, Law

  3. States of Matter • Solids

  4. States of Matter • Solids • Liquids

  5. States of Matter • Solids • Liquids • Gases

  6. States of Matter • Change States • heating • cooling

  7. States of Matter • Illustration of changes in state • requires energy

  8. Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures • Substance • matter that all samples have identical composition and properties • Elements • Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical reactions • Special elemental forms of atoms (diatomic) Elemental symbols • found on periodic chart

  9. Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures

  10. Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures • Compounds • Pure substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass • can be decomposed into the constituent elements REVIEW • Element cannot be broken down • Compound can be broken down into its elements!

  11. Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures • Mixtures • composed of two or more substances • homogeneous mixtures • Uniform throughout • Example: solutions • heterogeneous mixtures • Not uniform • Example: rocks

  12. Classify the following substances as an element, compound or a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances? • Lightly scrambled egg • Water • Lava lamp • Seawater • Chicken noodle soup • Root beer • Sucrose (C12H22O11)

  13. Separating Mixtures • Distillation

  14. Separating Mixtures • Chromatography paper

  15. Chemical and Physical Properties • Extensive Properties - depend on quantity of material Ex. mass • Intensive Properties - do not depend on quantity of material Ex. boiling point

  16. Chemical and Physical Properties • Chemical Properties - chemical changes • Observed during change of material to new material • Iron rusting • Physical Properties - physical changes • No change to the identity of the substance • changes of state • density • color • solubility

  17. Physical Properties • Density • mass / volume intensive property • Mass and volume extensive properties • Solubility • Amount of substance dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature • Saturated solution • Unsaturated solution • Supersaturated solution

  18. Identify the following as either a chemical or physical change. • Combination of sodium and chlorine to give sodium chloride. • Liquefaction of gaseous nitrogen. • Separation of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen. • Freezing of water.

  19. Measurements in Chemistry • length meter m • volume liter l • mass gram g • time second s • current ampere A • temperature Kelvin K • amt. substance mole mol

  20. Measurements in Chemistry • mega M 106 • kilo k 103 • deka da 10 • deci d 10-1 • centi c 10-2 • milli m 10-3 • micro m 10-6 • nano n 10-9 • pico p 10-12 • femto f 10-15

  21. Units of Measurement • Mass • measure of the quantity of matter in a body • Weight • measure of the gravitational attraction for a body • Length 1 m = 39.37 inches 2.54 cm = 1 inch • Volume 1 liter = 1.06 qt 1 qt = 0.946 liter

  22. The Use of Numbers • Exact numbers 1 dozen = 12 things • Accuracy • how closely measured values agree with the correct value • Precision • how closely individual measurements agree with each other

  23. The Use of Numbers

  24. The Use of Numbers • Exact numbers 1 dozen = 12 things • Counted numbers ex. 3 beakers • Significant figures • digits believed to be correct by the person making the measurement • Scientific notation • Way of signifying the significant digits in a number

  25. Significant Figures - rules • leading zeroes - never significant 0.000357 has three sig fig • trailing zeroes - may be significant must specify (after decimal – significant before decimal - ambiguous) 1300 nails - counted or weighed? Express 26800 in scientific notation with 4 sig figs 3 sig figs 2 sig figs

  26. Significant Figures - rules • imbedded zeroes are always significant 3.0604 has five sig fig How many significant figures are in the following numbers? 0.0124 0.124 1.240 1240

  27. Significant Figures - rules multiply & divide rule - easy product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

  28. Significant Figures - rules • multiply & divide rule - easy product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

  29. Significant Figures - rules • multiply & divide rule - easy product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

  30. Practice • 142 x 2 = • 4.180 x 2.0 = • 0.00482 / 0.080 = • 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = • 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

  31. Practice • 142 x 2 = 300 • 4.180 x 2.0 = • 0.00482 / 0.080 = • 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = • 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

  32. Practice • 142 x 2 = 300 • 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4 • 0.00482 / 0.080 = • 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = • 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

  33. Practice • 142 x 2 = 300 • 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4 • 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060 • 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = • 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

  34. Practice • 142 x 2 = 300 • 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4 • 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060 • 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = 1.58x10-7 • 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

  35. Practice • 142 x 2 = 300 • 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4 • 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060 • 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = 1.58x10-7 • 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 = 4.00x108

  36. Significant Figures - rules • add & subtract rule - subtle answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

  37. Significant Figures - rules • add & subtract rule - subtle answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

  38. Significant Figures - rules • add & subtract rule - subtle answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

  39. Practice • 416.2 – 10.18 = • 16.78 + 10. = • 422.501 – 420.4 = • 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = • 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

  40. Practice • 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0 • 16.78 + 10. = • 422.501 – 420.4 = • 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = • 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

  41. Practice • 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0 • 16.78 + 10. = 27 • 422.501 – 420.4 = • 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = • 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

  42. Practice • 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0 • 16.78 + 10. = 27 • 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1 • 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = • 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

  43. Practice • 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0 • 16.78 + 10. = 27 • 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1 • 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = 49.8 • 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

  44. Practice • 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0 • 16.78 + 10. = 27 • 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1 • 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = 49.8 • 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 = 4.2 x 10-3

  45. More Practice 4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

  46. More Practice 4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) = 4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

  47. More Practice 4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) = 4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) = 4.18 – 21.5192 =

  48. More Practice 4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) = 4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) = 4.18 – 21.5192 = -17.3392 Round off correctly

  49. More Practice 4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) = 4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) = 4.18 – 21.5192 = -17.3392 Round off correctly to 2 sig. figs -17

  50. Unit Factor MethodDimensional Analysis • simple but important way to always get right answer • way to change from one unit to another • make unit factors from statements 1 ft = 12 in becomes 1 ft/12 in or 12in/1 ft 3 ft = 1 yd becomes 3ft/1yd or 1yd/3ft