Cranes and Lifting Safety Four Corners Safety Network Presentation
Construction in Oil and Gas Code of Federal Regulations • 1926.1400 Standard ( New 2010 ) • 1926.1427 Standard Licensing and Qualifications • 1917.45 Cranes and Derricks • 1960.59 Training of Employees • 1910.180 Crawler Locomotive and Truck cranes • 1910.179 Overhead cranes • http://www.osha.gov/cranes-derricks/index.html
New Mexico Regulations • There is a bill being brought before the house floor in Santa Fe that will bring New Mexico’s Operator’s Council’s licensing Regulation in line with the new OSHA regulations. • Passed house unanimously and is on Senate Floor.
1926.1400 Standard ( New 2010 ) • New Cranes and Derricks regulation • Went in effect Nov. 8th, 2010 • Applies to the construction side of OSHA regulation • Put into effect because of numerous crane injuries and fatalities.
ASME Standards • ASME B56.1 Safety Standard for low lift and high lift trucks • ASME B30.20 Below the Hook lifting devices • ASME B30.9 Slings • ASME B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes • ASME B30.10 Hooks • ASME B30.16Overhead hoists • ASME B30.26Rigging Hardware • ASME B30.22Articulating Boom Cranes • ASME B30.11Monorails and Under-hung Cranes • ASME B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes • ASME B30.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists • ASME B30.6 Derricks • ASME B30.14 Side Boom Tractors • ASME B30.23 Personnel Lifting Systems
What do these rules and regulations apply to? This new standard applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction, that can hoist, lower, and horizontally move a suspended load. (Very Broad Scope)
What do these rules and regulations apply to?(not limited to this list) • Mobile cranes • Pipe Layers • Overhead Cranes • Telehandlers ( Exempted unless configured to hoist) • Forklifts (Exempted unless configured to hoist) • Rig Up Trucks • These are just examples & we do not cover everything here on this list.
When Do These Regulations Apply? • Activities that fall under Construction (29 CFR 1926) • Construction activities when conducted in the Oil and Gas Industry • Example: Site Preparation is covered under 29 CFR 1926
When do these Regulations not apply? • 1926.1400 Scope • Exclusion • ( c ) (11) Dedicated Drilling Rigs • Activities that fall under General Industry (29 CFR 1910) • General Industry activities when conducted in the oil and gas industry • Example: Rigging Up and Rigging Down are covered under 29 CFR 1910
Good Safety Practice It would be a Good Safety Practice to use this standard when ever it may apply. (because it makes good sense)
Why? • Broad scope of work in the oil and gas industry • All of these pieces of equipment are used typically in the scope of work for construction of an oil field site. • They can all at some time use rigging to lift pieces of equipment or materials. • As a general rule they all have a load chart or given lifting capacity.
Discussion Topics • Inspectors Defined • Inspections • Responsibility of Employer and Contractor • Training • Definition from OSHA • Various Standards
Inspectors • Competent Person - means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. ( Responsibility lies with employer to decide who is competent and meets definition)
Qualified Person - means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Whew, so who is competent and who is qualified. • Basically, OSHA gives you a definition and the employer is given the task of determining whether a specific person is competent or qualified to perform a specific task. A person that is qualified to do one thing is not necessarily qualified in something else, in example: Diesel Mechanic can he work on a crane boom assembly? Do you want a crane inspector, inspecting the cam shaft on a diesel engine?
When does a crane need to be inspected and by whom? • Modified Crane--any time there is a modification done to a crane, the modification must be inspected by a qualified person. • 1926.1434 is the full detail on this with specific criteria • Repaired/Adjusted Cranes--any time a crane has had a repair to a component that relates to safe operation, it must be inspected by a qualified person prior to initial use.
Shift inspection. OSHA no longer has a daily inspection; they now call it a shift inspection. It must done by a competent person. This inspection has minimum requirements. • Monthly Inspection…….the monthly inspection is simply a documented inspection done by a competent person. The employer is responsible to maintain the last three monthly inspections and they must be made available to anyone doing an inspection on the crane.
Annual/Comprehensive--This inspection must be performed by a qualified person and must be documented. Disassembly is required, as necessary, to complete this inspection. To see the full list of items to be inspected by individual item please review the appropriate standard for the piece of equipment being inspected. • This inspection must include a functional test. If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by a qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety concern. If it is determined the deficiency is a safety hazard, the crane must be taken out of service until repairs are made.
As before, the crane inspector is responsible to inspect the crane based on knowledge, experience, manufacturer’s guidelines, and the regulations for the specific type of crane being inspected. Inspectors must all know their individual limitations and also be able to discern whether they fit the category of a qualified person for a specific type of crane. i.e. • Example: An inspector may be very capable and qualified to inspect a telescopic boom crane, but doesn’t have the knowledge or background needed to inspect a lattice boom friction crane. To be qualified to inspect all crane types takes years of experience along with training.
Warning to Employer / Contractor • If an accident happens, one of the first things OSHA will look at is what procedures were in place and who the qualified people were that performed the inspection on a piece of equipment if it was directly involved in the injury or fatality. • Just because an individual or third party inspection service states they have the qualifications does not remove employers from being liable for what was performed or inspected or repaired.
Employer / Contractor Responsibility(Multi Employer Doctrine) • Have the knowledge about the requirements for inspection. These are clearly laid out and defined by OSHA or ASME standards. This includes having someone on staff or a consultant who clearly understands the rules as they apply to your situation. • Prime Contractor and Subcontractor • Prime Contractor is not removed from the loop of responsibility if they hired a subcontractor and the subcontractor is completely out of compliance.
Deficiencies on an inspection report • Deficiencies • Items from an inspection that need to be repaired immediately. (could be daily, monthly or annual) • Items that need repaired within 7 days per OSHA rule and regulation due to repair parts being ordered or unavailable immediately • If an item poses an immediate threat or danger to safe operation, the crane must be immediately taken out of service until repaired.
Recommendations in Inspection Report • Items that are recommended for safer use of crane. • Items that are recommended for safer operator use of crane. • Not mandated by law or by OSHA
Inspections • Inspections need completed by the correctly chosen individual, either internally or third party. Please read standard for correct definition of qualified inspector. • Inspections must meet OSHA standards per correct regulation or ASME standards. • Employer’s must understand the inspection process & requirements thoroughly. This will ensure that a completed inspection meets the OSHA requirement.
Once you have a completed inspection you must follow through with correcting deficiencies. Deficiencies must be repaired in a timely fashion. • The inspection report must be available within 8 hours to an OSHA inspector upon request. Preferably keep one on the unit itself. • Rigging, attachments must also have a documented log of inspections as applicable to the type of rigging.
Inspections: What to look for • 1. Does the inspector have the experience to be inspecting my equipment? Can this be verified? • 2. Does the inspection form follow the ASME or CFR guidelines for that piece of equipment? Do I understand what is in the guideline? Verify, by having the guideline in written format. Example: If there are 100 items in guideline, your inspection should have 100 line items as well.
3. If using third party, do they have trained certified inspectors. Can you verify? Yes ask for credentials or background paperwork. • 4. After the inspection. • Verify thoroughness • Was it pencil whipped • Did the inspector take the time to perform each piece of inspection? • Did they explain any issues? Deficiencies etc? You are responsible for information even though you hired someone else to perform inspections.
Repairs • Repairs when corrected need documented including date and inspection form updated with repairs. • Each section has some criteria for repairing various pieces of equipment please review standard to see what applies to your equipment.
Training • Training of employees 1926.1430 • 29 CFR Part 1926 • Working Near Electricity (overhead powerlines), Signal Person, Operator Qualification and Certification (very stringent on requirements and qualifications) • This section should be reviewed for your requirements.
Design, Construction & Testing • 1926.1433 • The following requirements apply to equipment that has a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2000 lbs. • B30.5-1968 • B30.5-2004 This section applies to anything that meets the above interpretation. Please read section carefully for information that applies to your situation.
Derricks 1926.1436 • Gin Pole Derricks • Testing • Operations • Design and Manufacture before this year and in the future • Operator Training • Inspections
Side Boom Cranes 1926.1440 • ASME B30.14-2004 • Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors must meet all of the following requirements of ASME B30.14 – 2004 • This section has more detail please review carefully.
Equipment Rated for 2000 lbs or less-1926.1441 • This section had too many pages for one slide. OSHA basically makes every ASME standard and every CFR rule that applies to other lifting equipment applicable for anything that falls under this category. If you designed it or you are using it there is a rule for it, wire ropes, training, safety devices, inspections etc. Please read carefully if you have anything in this category.
San Juan Basin Common Mechanic Crane Safety Issues. • Hooks-Bent or Deformed • Wire Ropes kinked or Damaged • Safety overloads disabled to allow more capacity. • Hydraulic Lines damaged from UV or weather • Bent Booms caused from overloading from bypassing overload system • Suspension system damaged from not using outriggers to lift loads • Using wrong type of wire rope or wrong size sheave blocks • Inadequate hazard recognition for hoisting & rigging equipment (counterfeit type equipment that do not meet standards) • A2B Device disabled or non existent or inoperable
San Juan Basin Larger Crane Common Safety Issues • Damaged Wire Ropes • Damaged Sheaves • Damaged Outriggers • Hydraulic Leaks • Inadequate outrigger pads / mats (pads not made properly to hold point loading of outrigger weight) • Disabled or nonexistent A2B system
Pipelayer Common Safety Issues • Hooks Damaged • Snatch Blocks Damaged • Bent Poles • Damaged Wire ropes • Pins and Brackets damaged • Cracked Welds • Hydraulic Leaks
Rigging Safety Issues • Imported Shackles that do not meet the ASME Standards • Synthetic Slings in use that are damaged • Oil soaked • Cut • Missing Information Tag • Abrasion Damage • Weld Damage
Rigging Safety Issues • Taglines-Not in good condition, oil soaked • Wire Rope Sling-damaged sockets, kinked or damaged wire rope • Chains-damaged links, damaged hooks, Incorrect hook pin • Knots in Tag lines • Homemade spreader beams without proper engineering data.
Safety Discussion • The operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined that safety has been assured. • This applies to any employee / operator involved in the lift.
Training • Operator Qualification and certification • The employer must provide at no cost to the operator or employee the qualification training and certification that is applicable to the employee.
Signals • Signals to operator must be by hand, voice, audible or new signals. • The “Standard Method” must be used. • Hand signal charts must be posted on equipment or conspicuously posted in the vicinity of hoisting operations.
Wrap up • Cranes and Lifting safety is a hot button from an OSHA stand point. This includes: regulation, inspection, training, operations and equipment. Common sense and good business management will ensure that you have these issues handled within your own organization. If you need help with any of these regulations please visit the OSHA website, contact your local OSHA consultant or hire a consultant / advisor to help you.
Do not delay in getting these issues dealt with. Be proactive and not reactive. Cranes and lifting safety should be a priority in your organization. The upfront costs to be in compliance are minimal compared to hurting someone or getting fined by a regulatory agency.