Reviewing Unit 1 How can we review for our upcoming exam?
Do Now If you had to ability to cure one disease in the world, what would it be? Why did you make that decision? Share your responses with your partner. As you are completing this do now, please have your homework(s) out to be collected.
Review: Living a Healthy Life Lifespan vs Life Expectancy: the # of years the person actually lives versus the expected # of years of life remaining at any given age for a group of people. • expectancy is an estimate / prediction based on statistics and average. Men vs women: Men are more likely to make risky choices, use tobacco and alcohol, and not seek medical attention. Women are more likely to have support systems for stress, seek professional health care when sick, and get routine health screenings. *Remember that these are averages, and that people can extend or reduce their life expectancy based on behavior and health choices.
Review: Living a Healthy Life Quality of life: the way you live your life to make it enjoyable and meaningful Quantity of life: the number of years you live Contributions to quality: relationships, enjoyable and meaningful work, hobbies, education or learning, creative interests and talents, physical health and fitness, emotional and mental health, sense of meaning and worth, values and beliefs, culture, safety and security, and spiritual beliefs. Five dimensions of Health: Physical, Emotional and Mental, Social, Intellectual, and Spiritual.
Review: Infectious Diseases Pathogens: aka germs; they are organisms that cause disease. • when someone gets one of these germs, he/she is infected with the disease. Infection: pathogens enter body, begin to multiply, and damage body cells. If the body is unable to resist or fight the infection, the disease will develop. Bacteria: single-celled; in air, soil, water, inside living things; helpful & harmful.Viruses: not living; cannot reproduce without a living host; goes away on ownProtozoa: living, single cell; animal-like: mobility, heterotrophic.Fungi: living organism; share plant and animal characteristicsParasites: living organism; gets food, shelter, survival from host
Review: Infectious Disease Direct contact: person to person; touching infected person’s skin, or infected blood, mucus, or other body fluids get inside another person’s body. • saliva through kissing, sharing utensils, bloodborne, direct cough/sneeze Indirect contact: person to something to person; travels through something else, and then person comes in contact with that thing. • infected doorknob, airborne saliva/mucus, bites, food/water, needles Noninfectious: develops inside a person’s body; can’t spread or be caught • cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease
Review: Chronic Diseases Under age of 24 and 25-44, unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death. • auto accidents, falls, drownings, fires As you get older, cause of death shifts towards disease. • heart disease, cancer Heredity: aka genetic; the genes and DNA that people are born with • plays a role in some diseases Some diseases develop due to unhealthy habits, lifestyle choices, environment (smoke, chemicals, smog) Chronic means ongoing or long lasting. Chronic diseases develop slowly, over time, and do not cause symptoms right away.
Review: Chronic Diseases Examples of Noninfectious Chronic Diseases: Heart disease: aka cardiovascular disease; blood vessels narrowed/blocked, blood not effectively transported/carried. Cancer: a number of diseases; development of abnormal cells (t-cells) that divide rapidly, take over, and destroy normal body tissues. Can affect different organs and systems, and can spread through the body. Chronic Lung Disease: airways and/or air sacs inflamed, narrowed, or damaged. Makes it hard to breathe. Alzheimer’s: damages and kills brain cells, progressive memory loss, and other mental functions. Less brain cells, less connections from cell to cell. Risk greatly increases with age. Stroke: blood flow to brain stopped/reduced; less oxygen and blood, brain cells die. Arteries in brain narrowed or blocked.
Review: Chronic Diseases Diabetes: affects how body uses glucose/sugar. Diabetics have too much glucose in their bloodstream, which can cause serious health problems. Type 1: little to no insulin secreted to help body absorb glucose. (borned with) Type 2: cells resistant to insulin, body cannot make enough to overcome resistance; glucose builds up in bloodstream. (from obesity, genetics, envir.) Kidney Disease: loss of kidney function, leads to dangerous levels of fluids, wastes, and toxins built up in the body. Can require dialysis.
Review: Chronic Diseases Risk Factors: Anything that increases the chance that a person will develop a disease. • The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance of developing the disease. • Some may have little risk factors but still develop the disease, and some may have many risk factors but not develop the disease. • You may significantly decrease the chances of getting a chronic disease by decreasing the amount of risk factors that are within your control. Modifiable risk factors: Risk factors that are within our control. • Unhealthy eating habits, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, being overweight or obese, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stress, exposure to secondhand smoke, exposure to chemicals, exposure to pollution, exposure to the sun. Nonmodifiable risk factors: Risk factors that we cannot control. • Age, gender, heredity/genetics, race/ethnicity.
Review: Chronic Diseases The most common modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases are tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, unhealthy eating habits, and physical inactivity. • responsible for much of the illness, suffering and death related to heart disease, lung disease, cancer, stroke and diabetes. • people can change all of these things by making better behavioral choices. • however, many people don’t look at how their habits and choices could affect their health until they are faced with a chronic disease. • the long-term nature and slow development of chronic diseases can make them seem less important, and less real, especially to young people.
Review: Getting Help to Stay Healthy Preventive Care: type of health care to prevent disease and problems by getting checkups, screenings, and immunizations in order to stay healthy. • Screening: test(s) to help determine medical problems or risk factors for diseases. • Routine vs As-Needed Not only do you need to eat healthy foods, exercise, and avoid tobacco smoke and drugs, but you should also see a healthcare provider as well. Examples of health care providers: doctor, physician’s assistant, nurse, pharmacist, dentist, orthopedic, podiatrist, etc. Benefits of seeing a healthcare provider: Detecting a problem early before it gets worse, getting treatment for existing conditions, obtaining health information.
Review: Getting Help to Stay Healthy Immunity: to be protected or not susceptible to harm from something. Vaccine: helps body recognize the disease so it can fight it in the future, and help the body become immune to the disease. • examples are tetanus shots, hpv shot, PPD/hepatitis shot, chicken pox, mumps, measles, rubella, meningitis, flu/influenza, and many more.
Review: Getting Help to Stay Healthy Health Information: may learn from health classes, teachers, friends, family, tv/radio, or health care providers. You may also have personal experiences and things you may have read or heard about or researched. Accuracy: based on proven facts, science, experiments, and other data. Reliability: you may count on the source(s) to yield same or similar results and/or data. May look for: information about health conditions and how to treat them, ways to be healthier, quick opinion about a health product, or general information you’re interested in. It’s popular today because of its accessibility, free, accuracy and reliability from health professionals.
Review: Getting Help to Stay Healthy Because there’s so much info on the internet, you have to be careful of who is providing the information, what the information is, how accurate and reliable it may be, and from who and where it comes from. Fortunately, there are some things we can do in order to evaluate or judge a health website to see if we can trust the info. 5 Q’s we should ask: • Who created the website? URL ends with .com, .gov, .edu, .org? Credentials? • What’s the website’s point of view? Opinion vs facts? Where does the info come from? Persuasion and use of language? Does it make sense? • When was it created or updated? New or old info? Do links still work? • Whom is the website for? Meets my needs? Caters to my problem? For teens? Adults? Professionals? General public? • Is the website trying to sell something? What risks may I be taking for trying the advice or product? Who benefits the most from the info?
Review: Vision Vision:allows us to see and respond visually to the world around us. As long as its clear, we can function at our best. Eyes download information and send it to our brain. • loss of vision causes problems in reading, recognizing people/objects, injuries, learning. Common Problems: myopia (near clear, far blurry, eyeball too long), hyperopia (far clear, near blurry, eyeball too short), astigmatism (football-shaped cornea, light is not focused evenly, images blurry and stretched out) , presbyopia (similar to hyperopia but due to aging of the eye). Ways to Protect Vision: Routine exams, fruits & vegetables, eye protection, frequent breaks away from computers/phones/reading, wash hands, don’t rub eyes, flush eyes.
Review: Hearing Hearing: collect, process, send sound signals to brain from hearing. Also helps us keep our balance while standing still or moving. Ears are fully developed before birth. • loss of hearing makes it harder to speak and communicate with others, and learning becomes difficult. Common Problems: Long term exposure to noise that is too loud or last too long, damaged sensory hair cells that don’t grow back, conductive hearing loss (outer ear canal damage), sensorineural hearing loss (inner ear canal damage or nerve damage), Pendred Syndrome (early genetic hearing loss) Ways to Protect Hearing: Avoid damaging noises, move away from loud sources, ear plugs or noise-reducing headphones, take breaks, avoid long hours of listening through earbuds or headphones, avoid inside contact with objects, routine exams, get aches and infections checked.
Review: Skin Skin: Body’s first line of defense against outside pathogens and objects, and protects the rest of the body. Contains nerves to sense heat, cold, pain, pressure, and puts you in “touch” with the rest of the world. • Damage to the skin can allow pathogens, infections, and illnesses to enter the body more easily. • Biggest cause is exposure to the sun. Also affected by punctures, scrapes, breaks. Common Problems: Allergic Reactions, Sunburns, Scarring and Infection, Acne Ways to Protect Skin: Sunscreen, loose-fitting long-sleeved shirts and pants, hat, sunglasses, stay in shade, treatment and bandage, lotion, wash often, check-ups for any unusual moles or spots, stay away from allergens.
Review: Sleep Sleep: helps body repair and recharge itself. Body and brain takes care of important functions during sleep. It is as important as breathing, water, and food. • lack of sleep: fatigue, increase chance of injury or illness, mood swings, less focus at school or work, speech, and relationships due to irritability. Common Problems: caffeine, waiting until the last minute to complete work, games, television, meals, uncomfortable bed, physical inactivity, sleep apnea/insomnia, no routine. Ways to Get Enough Quality Sleep: routines, naps, relaxing activities such as reading, hot baths, or listening to calm music, dark and quiet room, avoid computers and/or televisions, avoid games, meals 2 or 3 hours before, regular physical activity, avoid caffeine, consistency.
Summary Complete the review sheet if you have not yet done so. Riddle: There is a small town in the midwest with exactly 2 barbershops, one on each side of town. The barbershop on the west side of town is pristine. Its floors are spotless, the windows are always perfectly clear, and the air always smells fresh. The barber has a friendly smile, shined shoes, a well-groomed head of hair, and a fancy shirt. The barbershop on the east side of town is a mess. Its floors and windows are dirty, and the air smells of garbage. The barber always has a grimace on his face. His skin is oily, his hair is short and ragged, and he has food on his clothes all the time. A man travelling through the town realizes he needs a haircut. Knowing the stories of the two barbers, the man decides to go to the dirty barbershop on the east side of town. Why does he do this?