Chronology of the Holocaust 1933 - 1945
January 30, 1933 Adolf Hitler is appointed the Chancellor. He is the supreme leader of the NSDAP( National Socialist German Workers Party) and the SA (Storm Troopers)
March 5, 1933 • Rechstagwahl (parliamentary elections) Nazis receive 43.9% o vote
March 20, 1933 • Himmler, head of the SS, announces establishment of the first Concenration Camp at Dachau
March 24, 1933 The Reichstag(German parliament) gives Nazis comprehensive legislative power.
April 1,1933 • Adolf Hitler proclaims one-day boycott of all Jewish shops. Numerous acts of violence occur against individuals.
April 7, 1933 • First anti-Jewish law passed. All non-Aryan civil servants, with the exception of soldiers, are forcibly retired.
April 21, 1933 • Kosher butchering is forbidden by law.
May 10, 1933 Public burning of books
July 14, 1933 • German nationality can be revoked- for those considered “undesirable” by the government
August 2,1934 • Death of Reich President Paul Von Hindenberg.
August 3, 1934 • Adolf Hitler declares himself both president and Chancellor of the THIRD REICH. Army swears personal oath of allegiance to Hitler.
March 16,1935 Compulsory military service is reinstituted in Germany in open defiance of the TREATY OF VERSAILLES
September 6, 1935 • Jewish newspapers can no longer be sold in Germany.
September 15, 1935 • Nuremberg Laws deprive Jews of German citizenship and reduce them to the status of “subjects”; forbid marriage or any sexual relations between Jews and Aryans. Laws lay basis for sweeping discriminatory measures in coming years.
March 7,1936 • Jews no longer have the right to participate in parliamentary elections. The German army re-occupies the Rhineland.
August 1,1936 • The Olympic Games are opened in Berlin. Signs reading “Jews Not Welcome” are temporarily removed from most public places by order of the Fuhrer to present a favorable and misleading picture to foreign tourists.
December 1936 • Number of refuges from Nazi Germany exceeds 50,000.
July 2, 1937 • More Jewish students are removed from German schools and universities
July 24, 1937 • Jews are to be separated from other guests in German public baths and health resorts.
March 11, 1938 • German troops march into Austria. They are welcomed without resistance.
July 6, 1938. • Jews may no longer follow certain occupations such as broker, tourists guide, and real estate agent.
July 23, 1938. • Announcements that as of January 1, 1939, all Jews must carry identification cards.
July 25, 1938 • Announcements that as of September 30, 1938, all Jews must have only Jewish first name. If a Jew has a German first name, ”Israel” or “Sarah” must be added to it.
September 27, 1938 • Jewish lawyers removed from bar and reduced to “consultants”
October 5, 1938 • Jewish passports are marked with a “J”
November 7, 1938. • Ernst Vom Rath, German embassy official in Paris, shot by young Jew, Hershel Grynszpan, whose parents had been deported.
November 9, 1938 • Ernst Vom Rath dies. “KRTISTALLNACHT”( Night of Broken Glass) POGROM launched against Jews throughout the Reich. • Nearly 200 synagogues destroyed, thousands of Jewish shops looted, 30,000 males sent to concentration camps. Nazis claim pogroms was in retaliation to the murder of Ernst Vom Rath although it had been planned prior to the murder. This is a significant step on the road to the Holocaust.
November 12, 1938 • Following the Nazi-organized pogrom, “reparations” (forced payment to pay for damages) of one billion Reichmarks are imposed on the German Jews, and must further repair all damages at their own cost. Jewish firms forced to close. Jews may no longer attend theaters, cinemas, concerts or exhibitions.
November 15, 1938 • All Jewish children remaining in German schools are expelled.
December 3, 1938 • In Germany local authorities allowed to bar Jews from the streets on Nazi holidays. German Jews must hand in their driver’s licenses and car registrations as well as surrender their bonds and other securities and jewelry.
December 8, 1938 • Final exclusion of all Jews from institutions of higher education.
January 30, 1939 • Hitler proposes to the Reichstag “annihilation of Jewish race” in Europe in event of war.
March 15, 1939 • German troops march into Czechoslovakia.
August 23, 1939 Germany and Soviet Union sign non-aggression pact with secret provision on division of Poland.
September 1, 1939 • Germany declares war on Poland.
September 8,1939 • WORLD WAR II BEGINS (Curfew for Jews instituted: 9 p.m. in summer, 8 p.m. in winter)
September 21,1939 • Vicious pogroms against Jews in Poland.
September 23,1939 • All Jews must hand in their radios to the police.
October 19,1939 • “Reparations” levied in the wake of Kristallnacht are increased for German Jews to 1.25 billion Reichmarks, and are now payable by November 15, 1939.
November 23,1939 • Polish Jews must now wear yellow stars of David.
November 28,1939 • First GHETTO in Poland established in Protrokw.
December 1,1939 • Jewish food rations are reduced, Further reductions ordered for 1941 and 1942.
January 1940 • First experimental gassing of mental patients- Jewish and others- in German hospitals, as a result of “Aktion 74” (EUTHANASIA PROGRAM which was ordered by Hitler in October 1939).
February 6,1940 • Unlike the rest of the German people, Jews do not receive food coupons.
April 27,1940 • Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, orders establishment of concentration camp at Auschwitz.
June 22,1940 • France surrenders to Nazi Germany.
July 29,1940 • German Jews may no longer have telephones.
November 15,1940 • WARSAW GHETTO sealed off. It is largest of all Polish ghettos with some 500,000 inhabitants.