Western Europe • Because of its unique geography and weather patterns, Europe’s landscapes, waterways and climates vary greatly.
Western EuropeSection1 • Western Europe consist of 24 countries. • We will divide them up into small regions.(5) A. British Isles 1. United Kingdom 2. Ireland B. Central Europe 3. France 4. Andorra 5. Monaco 6. Germany 7. Switzerland 8. Austria 9. Liechtenstein
Western Europe C. Benelux Countries 10. Belgium 11. Luxembourg 12. Netherlands D. Scandinavia Countries (Nordic) 13. Denmark 14. Finland 15. Iceland 16. Norway 17. Sweden
Western Europe E. Mediterranean Countries 18. Greece 19. Italy 20. Vatican City 21. San Marino 22. Portugal 23. Spain 24. Malta
Western EuropeLandforms and Resources Peninsulas • Europe is a large peninsula of Asia. • Also has its own smaller peninsulas. • Most places are within 100 miles of the ocean or sea.
Peninsulas and Islands Northern Peninsulas Fjords • The Scandinavian Pen. Includes Norway and Sweden-bounded by Norwegian, North, & Baltic Seas. • Ice age glaciers remove topsoil; leave thin, rocky soil. • Glaciers createfjordsin Norway. -steep U-shaped valleys connected to sea, filled with seawater -provide harbors for fishing boats • Jutland Pen. Forms large part of Denmark, small part of Germany. -gentle, rolling hills & swampy low areas.
Southern Peninsulas/Islands Southern Peninsulas Islands Larger: Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, & Greenland Smaller: Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, & Crete • Iberian Pen: home to Spain and Portugal • Italian Pen. Includes Italy, extends into Mediterranean Sea. -booted-shaped, with 4700 miles of coastline • Balkan Pen. Bordered by Adriatic, Mediterranean, Aegean seas.
Mountains • The Alps is Europe’s most famous mountain chain. -crosses France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Balkans -cuts Italy off from rest of Europe • Pyrenees Mtns. block movement from France to Spain & Portugal. • Apennines Mtns. divide Italian Peninsula between east & west. • Balkan Mtns. block off peninsula, separate ethnic groups. • Pindus Mtns. are in Greece. Alps
Uplands • Hills or low mountains; may have mesas, high plateaus. -some are eroded remains of mountain ranges. • Uplands include Scandinavian Kjolen Mtns, Scottish Highlands. -also Brittany in France and the Meseta plateau in Spain. • Some uplands border mountainous areas: -Central Uplands of Germany at base of Alps -Massif Central uplands in France
Rivers Moving People, Goods, Ideas • Network of rivers bring people, goods together -allows goods inland from coastal harbors, aids economic growth. • Two major, castle-lined rivers as highways are: 1) Rhine flows north 820 miles from interior to North Sea 2) Danube flows east 1,771 miles, through 9 countries, to Black Sea. • These & many other rivers connect Europeans. -encourage trade and travel
Northern European Plain Fertile Plain North European Plain in Poland • One of the most fertile agricultural regions in the world. • Curves across France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Poland. -flat agricultural land produces vast quantities of food. • Flatness also has given invaders open route into Europe
Resources Industry/Energy/Agriculture Oil in North Sea • Coal & iron ore needed to create steel for industrialization. -found in Belgium, Netherlands, France, Germany, Poland. • Major industrialized regions: -Ruhr Valley in Germany. and parts of the United Kingdom. • Oil, natural gas found in North Sea. -petroleum supplied by Norway, Netherlands, Britain • 33% of Europe is suitable for agriculture; world average only 11%.
Resources Shape Life • Irish burn peat: partially decayed plant matter from bogs
Chapter 12 Section 2 Climates Climates influenced by: North Atlantic Drift: -carries warm water from Caribbean to coast High Mountains (Alps)(Cold) The Atlantic Ocean prevents: -Western Countries from having extremes of temperatures -quite mild year round temperatures. • Maritime(most of countries) • Humid Continental(inland countries) • Mediterranean(in south) • Subarctic (in north)
Mediterranean Winds • Mistral: A cold dry wind from the north. This on the coast of France not protected from the mountains. • Sirocco: is a hot steady south wind that blows from North Africa.
Farming Crops • Wheat • Rye • Barley • Potatoes • Sugar beets • Citrus fruits • Olives • Grapes
Land of the Midnight Sun Cold, Dark Winters • Tundra climate in far northern Scandinavia, along Arctic Circle -permafrost with no trees, only mosses, lichens • South of Tundra is subarctic climate: cool with cold, harsh winters -little growth except stunted trees. Region’s sunlight varies sharply: -some winter days have no sun, some summer days have no night
What is the EU European Union • The European Union is a group of countries whose governments work together. • It's a bit like a club. To join you have to agree to follow the rules and in return you get certain benefits. • Each country has to pay money to be a member. They mostly do this through taxes. • The EU uses the money to change the way people live and do business in Europe. • Countries join because they think that they will benefit from the changes the EU makes.
Chapter 12Section 3 Polders: Land from the Sea Netherlands • “God created the world, but the Dutch created Holland” -to hold growing population, the Dutch reclaimed land from the sea -40% of the Netherlands was once under water -dikes-earth banks that hold back the sea -a polder-land reclaimed by diking and draining.
Seaworks/Terpen/Windmills Seaworks Windmills OLD NEW • Seaworks-structures like dikes that control sea’s destructive force. -terpen-high earthen platforms that provide safe ground during floods
Transforming the Sea Zuider Zee Ijsselmeer Lake • It was an arm of the North Sea and is now a freshwater lake. • The lake is called Ijsselmeer. (eye Suhl mair)
Water Pollution • Industrial waste, sewage, saltwater eat away foundations • Erosion lets saltwater in • Agricultural runoff promotes “killer algae” growth -algae grow rapidly, die, decay; this uses up oxygen, so fish die. -dead fish attract insects and create stench in warm weather.
Deforestation Demand for Wood • Huge areas of Europe fall prey to deforestation. • Wood used to fuel, building, materials for ships, houses. • Industry needed wood charcoal for blast furnaces • Eventually coal replaces wood, but damages to forests is done.
Problems of Europe:Acid Rain • Factories produce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide emissions -combine with vapor, create acid rain or snow -winds carry emissions to other areas, affecting one-fourth of forests