Today we are going to make sure you understand and are able to give examples of the following sentence types:Yes/No questionWh-QuestionRhetorical QuestionNegationCommandTopicalizationConditionalDeclarative
Question: (Review) List 5 ways to create or come up with new signs in ASL.[5th Edition pg 59]
Represent English orthographic symbols via special signs known as "fingerspelling" and then
Borrow a sign from another signed language, (ITALY-[new-version], CHINA-[new-version])
Question: (Review) What is the difference between "derivational morphology" and "inflectional morphology?" [5th Ed, pgs 58-59]
In "derivational morphology" we "derive" or "come up with or create" new "units" (words) for a language. [Think of "word classes": nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.]
In "inflectional morphology" we are not creating "new" units, rather we are tweaking existing units. We are adding grammatical information (such as "who did what to whom," "how long something went on," or "how many of something there are" – plurality, etc.).
Question: The number of sentences that can be produced in a language is infinite. This is known as what characteristic of language?
127We have been looking at basic rules for word order.Now let’s consider some basic sentence types in ASL.
91 [5th Ed.]Now let’s consider some basic sentence types in ASL.Five basic sentence types tend to have very specific nonmanual features: questionsnegationscommandstopicalizationconditionalsdeclaratives
92 [5th Ed.] 127[4th Ed.]Yes-No QuestionsEnglish = Voice rise up at end of sentence
ASL Yes/no Questionseyebrows raise(may) tilt head(may) lean body forward(may) raise shoulders(may) hold last sign longer
Note: The former symbol for glossing of Yes-No questions was a “q” on a line above the question phrase.(Old)_________qMAN HOMELately we are using "y/n" instead:(New)_________y/nMAN HOME
5th Edition changes from 4th Edition: Symbol for glossing of Yes-No questions is now a “y/n” on a line above the question phrase._________y/nMAN HOME
92 [5th Ed.] 129 [4th Ed.] \Question MarkNote: Used to be called "Question Mark Wiggle," now just called "Question Mark." Used to be glossed as QM-wg.Now just glossed as QUESTION-MARK.
QUESTION-MARK:Tends to be used when signer is surprised or when something is unexpected.Compare to the English: (Really????)Also used when double checking or incredulous.
Page 93 [5th Ed.] 128 (4th Ed.) Wh-questionsWh-questions tend to use signs like:Where / Who / When / What / Why
Wh-question nonmanual marker:eyebrow squint(may) head tilt(may) lean slightly forward(may) hunch shoulders
129 [4th Ed.]94 [5th Ed.]Rhetorical Questions:Look like questions but the signer doesn’t expect an answer.
Note: Rhetorical QuestionsThe gloss for a rhetorical question used to be “rhet” but is now just "rh":Example:rhPRO.1 TIRED WHY STUDY ALL-NIGHT
Common signs used for rhetorical questions include:REASONWHENWHOWHATWHEREFOR-FOR
p. 130 4th Ed. p. 94 [5th Ed.]Rhetorical Question nonmanual marker:Raised eyebrowsSlight shake or tilt of the head
Dr. Bill’s note:Think of a rhetorical as asking: “Do you want to know why?”“Do you want to know who?”“Do you want to know what for?”“Do you want to know where?”Those are actually yes/no questions and thus use a yes-no nonmanual marker.
Page 131 [4th Ed.] Page 94 [5th Ed.]The process of changing an affirmative sentence to a negative is called negation.Nonmanual signals: shaking the head from side to side(may) frown(may) squint
95 [5th Ed.] 131 [4th Ed.]Commands:Also called “imperatives”English deletes the subject. Ex: “Sit down!”ASL Ex: *SIT*
Dr. Bill’s notes:Commands tend to modify the movements to be larger and the holds to be longer—especially at the end of the sign.
131 [4th Ed.] 95 [5th Ed.]Topicalization:Topicalization is when the object of the sentence is moved to the front of the sentence.