Chapter 9: Personality Development A chapter filled with scientific discoveries and events that took place hundred-thousands of years ago. These notes and facts now help us establish the differences between child and adult personalities and what they mean and/or are. A Presentation Done By: Arsham Jamalzadeh Yari HHG4M1
Part I: Personality Outline • The Big Five and Examples • Links to Temperament(al) Personality • Dimensions of Temperament(al) Personality
Part I: Basic Introduction • Personality is known to be the individual patterns of responses to interactions of the environment both socially and nature of a human being. • Reference made to the book “The Difficult Child” by author Stanley Turecki. • Book describes examples of various parents and how they raise their children and the challenges along the way. Personality being a main focus in the book, because it is said that personality is developed from early infancy and is based upon the infants traits and his/her surroundings. Therefore, parents must take all percussions to ensure that their child has a really good personality.
Part I: The Big Five • The Big Five is a theory used by researchers that bases upon the five major dimensions in an adults personality. They include; Extraversion (the ability of engaging with society), Agreeableness (positive thinking and personal depth of happiness in a work area), Conscientiousness (Impulse Control), Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) and lastly Openness/Intellect (ability to reflect mental and experimental life based on experiences) • Examples of the dimensions: • Extraversion: active, or enthusiasm • Agreeableness: Trusting or Forgiving • Conscientiousness: Organization, Responsible • Emotional State: Anxious, Tense, Stress • Openness: Curious or Original
The Big Five is found to be one of the most accurate personality tests. Good evidence such as precise data on human interactions have been recorded. People who smoke or drink often have a low Emotional State, or compared to some people that receive higher marks in school because they have a greater ability of communicating with the people they are surrounded with. Since the Big Five is considered a good way to judge the total personality of a human, researchers use this on children today. However they must follow 2 procedures before taking any further steps. Procedures follow as 2 different types of Temperants and how child personalities link with adult personalities. Part I: The Big Five Continued
A study in Netherlands proved that indeed the “Big Five” elements do closely match adolescence traits. Shiner 2000, Oliver John 1994, and other theorists also agreed on terms that the “big five” is closely accurate to children as well. Only difference is that the order follows with “agreeableness or emotional state” first than follows the rest. Example of the events is used in Oliver Johns experiment: He took 500 boys from the school from all the 4th graders and studied them both physically and mentally. Than used the data he had collected to compare and analyze if there were any differences in personality traits and their was. Those who were more open and willing had a better mark on a test than those who were more agitated. Part I: The Big Five Cont.
Part I: The Big Five Cont. • The same study was done on girls in the 4th grade and also witnessed that girls who had a high neuroticism rate were most common to get involved with crime, or fighting because they couldn’t control their emotions. • Though there hasn’t been a direct correlation between Delinquency in girls as to guys. Supposedly, a boys behavior can easily be determined through his personality, however girls are more in depth than the Big Five. • Cross-Culture traits have been found during the Kohnstamn experiment and was followed by the Dutch study (Haselager) which proves that in fact there are two addition dimensions that describe a child’s personality: Irritability and Activity Level.
Links to Temperament • Mary Rothbart and John Bates define Temperaments as the “individual differences in emotional, motor and attentional reactions that children display in different environments”. • Often to be found as the “emotional” state of a humans personality. • As you grow older your personality is building off the emotional state. Therefore it is a crucial structure to how someone acts in their future. If not grown properly it would lead to possible negative actions or fighting and crime. • Example: Mothers who are known as to be really shy will make the toddlers or adolescents to be really shy as well compared to other kids with different traits.
Dimensions Of Temperament • Currently there are 9 different stages of Temperamence • Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas 1984 – were the group of researchers to analyze that there are indeed 9 different dimensions. Future studies show that it was reduced to three suggested by Arnold Buss 1989 and now there are 5. • Dimensions Are: - Activity Level (Act of movement), Approach/Positive Emotions (Living life in a positive direction), Inhibition/Anxiety (Shyness or Stress resolved when talking to new people or experiencing events that stress your mind), Negative Emotions/Irritability (Tendency to respond with anger), and Effortful Control/Task Persistence (Staying focused rather than be really twitchy). • Page 251 example of cross culture
Genetic and Biological Explanations of Personality Outline • Biological Argument: What it is and in-depth analysis. • Critique of the Theory
Biological Argument • Suggested that the traits of personality are not nurture but nature instead. Therefore they are supposedly found to be a Biological Aspect. • Split into 4 Propositions and Possibilities. • List of Propositions: • Each individual is born with genetically determined trait patterns responding to the environment and other people. • Genetic Differences operate via variations in physiological processes. • Temperamental dispositions persist through childhood and into adulthood. • Temperamental characteristics interact with the child’s environment to ways that either strengthen or modify the basic pattern.
Each individual is born genetically determined characteristic patterns of responsiveness. Rose 1995 – proves this point because identical twins are found to be strongly connected with their personalities compared to fraternal twins. This indicates a strong genetic affair. Brothers and sisters are also found to have similar personality traits. Genetic Hypothesis seems to be correct at this stage of the process. Proposition 1
Genetic differences operate in the fundamental physiological processes. Kagan believed that the differences in inhibition are based on arousals on parts of the brains. If those specific sectors are stimulated it can cause an increase in the possibility of the patterns occurring. Shy children are thought to have low rates for stimulation of the amygdale and hypothalamus. Factors are taken in consideration after tests are completed are;, urine, saliva, heart rate, dilation of the pupil and muscle tension to be signs of high stimulation to those parts of the brain. Other researchers have demonstrated that temperamental differences are associated with different levels of activity in the left and right sections of the brains (Fox, Henderson, Rubin etc 2001-02) Proposition 2
Temperamental dispositions persist through childhood and into adulthood. Seems to be growing evidence of consistency in temperament. Study involving 450 Australian children, with reports of irritability, manageability, inflexibility, and etc from their mothers were consistent throughout ages 1-12. Proposition 3
Temperamental characteristics interact with the child’s environments in ways that may either strengthen or modify the basic temperamental pattern. This means that its always a mix of both nature vs. nurture that has an impact on the child's behavior. Eventually, the child will be exposed to the environment and the people around him/her and it would affect how they act as well. One factor that strengthens a child’s nurture traits is the ability of creating your own thoughts and experiences. Because we choose what we want to accomplish, genetics can’t play a factor in this. Proposition 4
Critique • Though each side of the possible genetic view was shown in depth there are both some negatives and positives about the theory. The positives include a strong support of empirical research, and a strong view that it is not all biological but also a bit international. However, the weakness prove that in reality it is not just genetics that plays a role in a child’s personality. Environment plays just a big role as genetics do, if not bigger. Since the definition of temperaments is to scientific it is hard for researchers to really focus and narrow down the possibilities on multiple experiments. And the second flaw is that, most children are exposed to the public environment after the age of 2 years old, thus they generate quickly how people around them are acting. If not 100% or barely 30% understanding of what's going on they still will try to mimic or re-in act the situation.
Learning Explanations • Learning of Personalities • Learning Theory • Critique
Learning Theory • Theorists look at the reinforcement patterns in the environment as the primary cause of differences in children personality patterns. • Albert Bandura, known for the most influential theorist in the group, agree that biological factors like hormones (testosterone, and estrogen) and inherited propensities affect behavior as well. • The environment is the most influential aspect of personalities of children growing up.
Theory Cont. • Radical Behaviorists are known as people who study sudden changes in behavior of children, or the study of non-normal behavior. • They believe that only basic principles of classical and operant conditioning are needed to variate the differences in behavior including personality. • Bandura also emphasized observational learning along side with cognitive elements. Once again there were 4 propositions included: • Behavior is strengthened by reinforcement • Behavior that is reinforced on a partial schedule should be even stronger… • Children learn new behaviors largely through modeling • From reinforcement and modeling, children learn not only over behavior but also ideas and self concepts.
Behavior is strengthened by reinforcement. Applies to shyness, attachment patterns and competitiveness. If a child is reinforced with a certain act to their parents than in the future that child would continue that act compared to one that isn't reinforced by it. (Example: Clinginess) Another good example are babysitters Proposition 1
Behavior that is reinforced on a partial schedule should be even stronger and more resistant to extinction than behavior that is consistently reinforced. This leads back the the previous example of the child being clingy to his mom at a very early age and being reinforced, thus leading to future Clinginess to others compared to one who maybe does the same but isn’t reinforced. Major factor of patterns in behavior and personality. Experiments such as children hitting an inflated rubber clown on the nose. The children who were rewarded continued to beat up so to speak the clown compared to others who just sat around doing nothing. (video) Proposition 2
Children learn new behaviors largely through modeling. Bandura explains that social behaviors are not just learned but more reinforced by the nurture of people around us. The events and acts we witness build the full range of social behaviors. Therefore if a child sees her parents doing something bad, chances are he/she will also try to do what they just saw eventually. Examples of environment factors: T.V, School, Parents, Friends, Teachers, Nature, News, Music and many more. Figure 9.2 explains the difference between preached (reinforced) and non preached children and their actions. Proposition 3
From reinforcement and modeling, children learn not only overt behavior but also ideas, expectations, internal standards and self concepts. This basically means the child learns the standards for his behavior and what he is expected to act like, knowing if he doesn’t meet them punishments will be a consequence. Self Efficacy – Bandura’s description of an individuals beliefs in his/her ability to accomplish tasks. Proposition 4
Critique • Personally speaking, and with the facts we have learned it his really clear that children do learn from their surroundings as much as they do with genetics. Modeling is a clear sector of how a child acts and grows up to become an adult. The cognitive elements in Bandura theory also help build and strengthen the base of the structure and since “self scheme”- also known as the concept of one’s own capabilities, is a huge factor in the theory therefore we decide if we have succeeded or not. And since we take our own different experiences therefore every child would have a different traits. However, the self concept can always be modified to a lesser extent, and it does intertwine with Piaget’s child theories on behavior as well causing a debate between which is more accurate thus making this not the best way either.
Psychoanalytic Explanations of Personality • Argument on Psychoanalytic • Differences between Freud and Eriksson • Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • Eriksson's Psychosocial Stages • Bowlby’s Model of Attachment
Argument • Proposition 1: Behavior is governed by unconscious as well as conscious motives and processes. Meaning that the sexual drive, preserving drive and the aggressive drive, are more cognitive processes. • Proposition 2: Personality structure develops over time, as a result of the interaction between the child’s inborn drives and needs and the response of the key people in the child’s world. Meaning that since the child is often prevented from achieving higher standards for his/her work, they are often found trying to find new skills and often giving up on skills learned. • Proposition 3: Development of personality is fundamentally stage like, with each stage centered on a particular task. • Proposition 4: The specific personality a child develops depends on the degree of success the child has in the various stages.
Freud's theory consist of cognitive skills developed only because the child needs such skills to survive or obtain for gratification. They do not contain any other purpose. EX: Physical Maturation Actual procedure and timeline of sexual growth Eriksson’s theory consist of cognitive skills that are a part of a set of ego functions that are presumed to develop independently, rather than arising entirely in the service. EX: Emotional Distress about Physical Maturation The stages the mind enhances during sexual growth Freud VS Eriksson
Freud Psychosexual • The stages of personality development suggest by Freud, consisting of the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stages. • Oral Stage: Birth – 1 Year: Mouth, lips and tongue are the first areas of pleasure for the baby and his earliest attachment would be his mother. Needing of some optimal amount of oral stimulation. • Anal Stage: 1 – 3 Years: As the body matures, the baby becomes more sensitive along the anus/anal region. As the girl matures physically, parents are suggested to start toilet training at this time. • The Phallic Stage: 3-5 Years: Genitals start becoming sensitive. Most important event in this stage is the Oedipus Conflict (pattern of events that Freud believed occur between ages 3 and 5 when the child experiences a sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex. Identification also occurs and it’s the process of taking into oneself the qualities and ideas of another person. (Child tries to become the parent) • The Latency Stage: 5-12 Years: Known as the resting period – only thing that occurs is that identification is now target to everyone of the same sex around her. • Genital Stage: 12-18 and older: Further harmonic changes and genital organs start to grow and muscle tissues grow as well. (Puberty)
Erikson's Psychosocial • Erikson placed ore emphasis on the emergence of the sense of identity rather than what Freud did with the sexual drive. Meaning that Erikson focused mainly on what the human is thinking of rather to what there feeling. • He argues that the stages don’t fully form even after adolescence. • He has 8 stages but 5 stages with the occurrence of age. Look at figure 9.3 • Basic Trust Stage: Birth to 1 year: First task occurs during life, when the child develops a sense of basic trust in the world. Behavior of the mother at this stage is very important. • Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt: 2-3 Years: If parents don’t control the guidance of his or her child at this stage and guide them in the right direction, it can cause the child to put him/her self down and start a processes of humiliation. • Initiative Versus Guilt: 4-5 Years: Almost equal to Phallic Stage. Where child obtains new ideas and skills. Mind grows larger and the child tries out new cognitive skills and attempts to “rule the world”. • Industry versus Inferiority: 6-12 Years: Biggest age gap because the beginning of school is a major force on this stage. Needs of approval from many people around him/her, and also many tasks are needed to be completed. • Identity versus Role Confusion: 13-18 Years old: Task of a child during and through puberty.
Also known as the continuation of Eriksson theory where a child starts developing a major attachment to the care giver and slowly to the people around him or her. Relationships with the child at a young age with their parents would shape how the child would act in a relationship in the future. Children are born with a repertoire of built-in and instinctive behaviors that elect care giving from others. Such as crying, smiling, making eye contacting and laughing at some stages. Bowlby’s Attachment
Critique of the theories • Theories focus on the importance of the emotional quality of a child’s relationship with caregivers. Thus if the parents are doing a bad job, it is highly likely that the child itself would become that kind of parent when he/she has kids. • Has given lots of concepts such as defensive mechanics (ability to fight against yourself or others), and identification of themselves to help propel themselves for where they want to be. • Tables 9.4 on page 270 and figure 9.4 page 269