I. Approaches to studying personality. • Psychoanalytic – (Freud) Focuses on the child and subconscious motivations. • Trait – Personality is genetic. • Social-Learning – Revolves around reinforcement. • Positive actions are rewarded making them more likely to be repeated. • Negative actions are punished making them less likely to be repeated. • Humanistic – Based on the belief that each person is born essentially good and has the potential to become a fully empowered person
II. Factors that contribute to personality. • Heredity – genetic make-up. • Environment – home life; experiences.
III. Socialization • The process of teaching behavior based on the habits of the family and community.
IV. Socialization process. • Conditioning – Shaping of behavior through use of punishments and rewards. • Modeling – Process of learning by watching and imitating another person. • Expanding Horizons – Experiences outside the home that influence personality and intelligence.
V. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • A lower, more basic level must be met before moving • to the next level.
VI. Pre-Adolescent Development a) Infancy 1) Meeting basic needs and love leads to trust. 2) Exploration of environment. 3) Encouragement leads to sense of well-being and eagerness to learn. b) Childhood 1) Independence develops. 2) Sense of achievement develops by successfully carrying out new activities. 3) Gender Identification – Boys and girls are different.
VII. Adolescent Development • Identity – Who you are and who you wish to become. • Values – Rules and standards you feel are important to live by. • Mission – Where am I going? Experience different paths to find what’s right for you.