Personality Development Lap 4 Psychodynamic and Cognitive Theories Part I
Theories of Personality • Goal- to EXPLAIN similarities/ differences • To provide reasons for differences in personalities • To discover patterns • To determine how life can be improved
Psychodynamic Theories • Personality/ behavior is the result of unconscious motivations and conflicts • Only a small part of the mind is conscious • Unconscious- things recalled with effort • Theorists: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler • Criticisms include the unscientific nature of the ideas • Ignores the “neurological” parts of the brain
Freud and Personality • Personality develops at different stages in life • The Structure of Personality: • Behavior is the result of interaction and conflict between 3 elements • Id- inborn, impulsive, instinctive drives • Demands satisfaction • Libido-- Life-preserving (sexual) drive • Aggressive, destructive drive • Pleasure Principle– impulses should be satisfied, regardless of consequences!
Freud and Personality • The structure of personality: • Ego- Executive agent of personality • Mediates between self and world • Compromise to satisfy the demands of the ID– reason and strategy • Reality principle- delays pleasure until a suitable object available • Defense Mechanisms to protect it (Lap 2) • Denial, repression, projection, intellectualization, etc
Freud and Personality • The structure of personality: • Superego- Conscience/ moral standards/ right vs wrong • Superego blocks the aggressive and sexual impulses of the ID • Controls the ID • Ideal Self- how we should be… leads to feelings of guilt or pride
Freud • Personality develops over time • Childhood experiences continue to influence behaviors • 5 Stages of Personality Development • Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital • Milestones and conflicts of each • Oedipus complex in phallic stage • Focused on the role of primitive urges/ sexual instincts
Freud • Conflict leads to maladjustment • Goal of therapy- to uncover the hidden root of current problems and reveal the unconscious mind • Therapy methods - “talking outo” lead to “free association” and dream analysis • Dreams: the expression of emotional memories