Download
cost planning cost control and cost analysis n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis

Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis

1209 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis Introduction • Cost planning and cost control of buildings is not a new technique, which has been in use for many years. • Costing mean applying prices to schedule of items of labour and materials in order to obtain an approximation of the cost of a construction project. • Cost planning and cost control is not only to determine the probable cost of a building but to control the design development throughout the project, and to provide the client with value for money. ss5

  2. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis Introduction • it can also dictate the nature of the most important characteristic of the embryo design, the plan shape, storey height, type of finishes and so on. • Time must be spent in the early stages of design sequence for cost planning so that careful cost control by monitoring of variations can be operated during construction stage to the settlement of account to be effective. ss5

  3. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis Introduction • clients’ requirements for an accurate forecast of the overall cost is due to:- • resources such as land and materials becoming scarce and expensive. • modern buildings becoming more complex, • fluctuation in labour and material cost etc. ss5

  4. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis What is Cost Analysis? • The analysis and presentation of actual costs to facilitate cost planning. • It is a systematic breakdown of cost data according to the element for cost so as to facilitate examination. • A cost analysis is a record of how the cost has been distributed over the elements of a building; it includes a brief description of the overall nature of the project and specification notes on the general level of finishes, and so on. ss5

  5. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis What is Cost Planning? • Method of controlling the cost of a project, within a predetermined sum, during the design process and includes the preparation of the cost plan as well as the subsequent stages of cost checking. • Techniques for arriving a cost plan or cost limit. • Cost plan is a statement of the intended cost to spend on each element of a proposed building within a total sum and in relation to a defined standard of quality. • The allowances set against each element are cost targets. ss5

  6. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis What is Cost Planning? • Cost plan is prepared by finding a cost analysis of a similar project to the one under consideration, and by studying how the cost was allocated in the old project, in order to prepare an estimate for the new scheme. • The cost information cannot be used directly from the cost analysis, and some degree of modification will have to be made. • These modifications are usually for differences in • price level • Quantity • Finishes and standards ss5

  7. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis What is Cost Control? • Techniques for “protecting” the cost plan. • Generic term embracing all methods of controlling the cost of a building throughout its various stages from inception to completion. • Process of cost checking required the estimated cost of each element to be checked against the target set set in the cost plan. ss5

  8. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis The Reasons for Cost Planning and Cost Control. • To determine the probable cost of a project development. • To provide a yardstick to control the design of the development throughout the project. • To provide the client with value for money ss5

  9. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis The Project Sequence (based on the RIBA Plan of Work). • Inception • Feasibility • Outline Proposal • Scheme Design • Detail Design • Production • Information • Bill of Quantities • Construction • Completion ss5

  10. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis Phases of Cost Planning. • Inception At the initial stage, client wishes to know: • how much will the idea cost? • How best might available capital be spent? • Feasibility Develop a brief indicating: • location • floor areas • type of accommodation • nature of the site • indicative cost etc Is the project feasible: • Yes : proceed with the design • No : review/cancel the project ss5

  11. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal • Develop the optimum design solution to satisfy the brief. • Indicates size, type, location, number of storeys, plan shape etc. • Scheme Design • Ensure the overall design is the most cost effective. • To establish the final cost plan (limit of cost) • indicates dimensioned sketch plans, elevations, sections, early structural information, early specification, site layout etc. • Preparing brief cost summary/the elements of cost plan. ss5

  12. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design • The lump sum estimate must not be split down into the amount of money it is intended to spend on each element (See Figure 1). Figure 1 Target cost lump sum estimate of $2,000,000 Elements Cost Target $600,000 Cost Target $750,000 Cost Target $650,000 ss5

  13. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design (Cont’d) • As the project design develops, the information available increases and perhaps changed somewhat. • After detail design stage the general layout should not be radically altered. • The constituent parts of a cost analysis are: • a summary of project, contract and design/shape information • a summary of element costs • an amplified analysis ss5

  14. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design (Cont’d) • A brief cost summary, which is a statement of how the target cost has been distributed over major groups of elements, such as: • useful in providing an outline proposals stage a broad but accurate cost allocation over these groups of elements. • From these elements, the cost plan is prepared. • The designer with the Q.S.’s advice on the cost implications of various alternative forms of construction, finishes, and so on; will also examine the alternatives to meet the client’s requirements. • It also enable the Q.S. to examine how the cost is distributed and whether any element may be overloaded with capital, and it allows the Q.S. to alter the balance of cost within the overall target cost. ss5

  15. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design • Consider this situation, remembering all the time that the target cost must not be altered. Figure 2 Target cost $300,000 Element No. 1 Frame $150,000 Element No. 2 Roof $50,000 Element No. 3 Services $100,000 ss5

  16. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design • After checking against the detail design, it becomes obvious that $150,000 for frame is an unrealistic target and that at least an additional $15,000 will be required for this element. • To prevent the target cost from increasing to $315,000. • Compensating reductions must be made to other elements i.e. it is found that element 3 or services can be reduced, it is decided that the installation to be substituted with a cheaper alternative. • Performing this ‘lending and borrowing’ exercise, the Q.S. runs the risk of tipping the balance of the design. ss5

  17. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design Target cost $300,000 Element No. 1 Frame $170,000 Element No. 2 Roof $50,000 Element No. 3 Services $80,000 ss5

  18. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Outline Proposal and Scheme Design • Care must be taken not to overload one element at the expense of another. • It is also argued by some Q.S. that client would much prefer to pay the extra $15,000 than to have the project’s overall standards reduced, or the balanced design abolished. • Sometimes, the substitution of a less expensive alternative should not necessarily result in a lowering of standards, or an abolition of the balanced design. ss5

  19. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Detail Design Stage (Cost Control) • cost checks the Architect’s detailed design against the cost target set (at outline cost plan) • to ensure that design does not exceed the budgetary cost estimate • During this stage, the Q.S. will immediately performed cost check using the approximate quantities on each elements after being detailed against the cost target set. • This is to allow any necessary redesign or reallocation of cost to be carried out before the final drawings are prepared for tender. ss5

  20. Cost Planning, Cost Control and Cost Analysis • Construction Stage (Cost Control) • Cost updates in the form of financial report provide control over variation or deviation made to the contract. • This tool is vital for monitoring deviations or variations and ensuring that the design team and client are kept updated of changes made without compromising the budget. • For new requirements, the cost updates on anticipated final cost will also provide the client and/or designer with an updated financial commitment so that he can decide whether to proceed or not. ss5