During the periods of Reconstruction, industrial expansion, and the Progressive movement, South Carolina searched for ways to revitalize its economy while maintaining its traditional society. 8-5.5 8-5.6 8-5.7 8-5.8
8-5.5 Compare industrial development in South Carolina to industrialization in the rest of the United States, including the expansion of railroads, the development of the phosphate and textile industries, and immigration.
Key Vocabulary • Transcontinental railroad • New South • Mill villages • Textiles • Labor movement • Strikes • Unions • phosphates
Key Concepts • Following the American Civil War, the United States, especially the northeast and the Midwest, became progressively industrial. The railroad and immigrant labor played a key role in the industrial growth of these areas.
South Carolina’s planter elite discouraged the development of industry on the basis of tradition and politicians did little to invite industry to the state.
Eventually, due in part to cities that developed as railroad hubs, South Carolina did become more industrial producing textiles with its ready supplies of cotton. Farmers who could no longer make a living on the land became mill workers. • Mill workers were treated as second class citizens, young children were employed, wages low and working condition quite dangerous.
Phosphate mining provided the state some wealth as it is a key component in fertilizer. However, this venture was short lived when rich deposits were found in Florida.
Photograph Analysis: Textile Mills http://www.teachingushistory.org/documents/Chdlbr.htm Oral history Analysis: • Textile Mill Conditions • http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/2713?ref=search
8-5.6 Compare the plight of farmers in South Carolina with that of farmers throughout the United States, including the problems of overproduction, natural disasters, and sharecropping and encompassing the roles of Ben Tillman, the Populists, and land-grant colleges.
KEY VOCABULARY • Postwar depression • Populists • Supply and demand • Mechanization • Tenant farming • Foreclosures • Boll weevil • Grange • Farmers’ Alliance • Colored Farmer’s Alliance • Demagogue • Clemson Agricultural and Mechanical • Land grant college
Key Concepts • Farmers struggled to make a profit across the United States due to over production and foreign competition. Farmers also were underrepresented politically.
The Grange was a social organization formed to alleviate the isolation of farm life. Across the United States, the Grange evolved into a political organization. In South Carolina, it remained a social outlet.
South Carolina segregated their farmer’s organizations; the White Farmer’s Alliance and the Colored Farmer’s Alliance.
Charleston Earthquake Lesson- • Students will analyze primary sources and create a plan of action for dealing with the earthquake and a newspaper headline covering the Charleston Earthquake. http://library.sc.edu/blogs/academy/files-/2011/08/After-the-Storm-8-5.5.pdf • Ben Tillman Palmetto Special ETV: http://scetv.org/education/emedia/guides/The%20Palmetto%20Special/lesson26.pdf
8-5.7 Compare migration patterns of South Carolinians to such patterns throughout the United States, including the movement from rural to urban areas and the migration of African Americans from the South to the North, Midwest, and West.
Key Vocabulary • Westward expansion • Exodusters • Political bosses • Corruption • Nativism • Social Darwinism
Key Concepts • Immigration had a tremendous impact on the cities of the northeast and the Midwest. • Foreign immigrants did not come to South Carolina in large numbers. • Both immigrants and African Americans experienced racial hostility. The idea of Social Darwinism gave whites an intellectual justification for white supremacy. • African Americans moved in large numbers from the farms in the south to factory jobs in the north.
Were Political Bosses Corrupt? • Students will use multiple sources to explain that although corrupt, bosses served an important role in helping new immigrants adapt to their new country. What was life like in American cities during the Industrial era? • Students will use various images and documents to explain the effect of racial and ethnic diversity on the national identity in the late 19th and early 20th century. Contains Jacob Riis images, other visuals, primary and secondary documents.
8-5.8 Compare the Progressive movement in South Carolina with the national Progressive movement, including the impact on temperance; women’s suffrage; labor laws; and educational, agricultural, health, and governmental reform.
Key Vocabulary • Progressive Movement • Temperance • Women’s suffrage • Labor laws • Reform • Muckrakers • World War I
Key Concepts • Nationally, the Progressive Movement developed to reform corrupt government, end monopolistic big business and improve conditions of the working class. • Muckrakers played a major role in exposing societal ills to mainstream America.
In South Carolina, Progressive issues included child labor, fair treatment of workers, temperance, women’s suffrage and improving education. • In South Carolina, sharecropping and the crop lien system kept small farmers in perpetual debt.
Women Suffrage Movement-Why did people oppose it? • Contains background information from primary and secondary source documents. Students will choose a perspective and support their choice with details from the text. Prohibition Activity-Why was the 18th Amendment adopted? • Video, visuals, questions, will assist students in developing a logical argument to answer the question of prohibition. Muckraking Activity V isuals to examine, questions, etc.