Events of 1917 • America joins the war with the Allies (April 1917). • Why? Because Germans kept sinking American ships with U-boats from 1915-1917. • Germany also wanted Mexico to go to war with America in January 1917. America in the War • By mid- 1918, there were over 1 Million American soldiers in Europe, and many more arriving.
These pictures shows the sinking of an American ship (called the “Lusitania”) in 1915.
Russian Revolution • The Russians revolted, demanding Land, Bread and Peace (Russian revolution) • In March 1918 the Russians signed a separate peace treaty with Germany, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk and Germany turned all armies to the Western Front • Germany began their last offensive in April 1918. They advanced 60km but were held back by Britain, Canada and France
The End of WWI • The fighting continued on the Western Front in Belgium and France into 1918 • Neither side could win decisive (important/big) battle that would guarantee victory • Soldiers on all sides began to question the point of war
Hundred Days Campaign • Starting in August 1918, the Allies used a series of attacks to push back the Germans • Canadians were very important in helping with this. • They successfully broke through the Hindenburg line • General Arthur Currie considered it Canada’s greatest achievement in WWI.
Collapse of the Central Powers: • October1918–Austro-HungarianEmpiresplitsup;separate statesnegotiatepeacewithAllies • November1918–revolutioninGermany;Kaiser(King) steps down;republicdeclared LINK
The End of WWI • Riots/Protests began in Germany because of food shortages and protests against the war • Some members of the German navy refused to go to sea. It was obvious that Germany had lost the war. • An armistice (agreement / treaty) to end the war was signed on November 11, 1918
Making Peace • Paris Peace Conference, 1919 • Allies discuss terms of peace agreement • PM Robert Borden demands and gets his own seat at the peace conference. He wanted Canada to represent itself, instead of being represented by Britain. • Borden also signed the treaty after the conference. • Britain, France, and USA did most of the talking. • The result was the Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles • Signed on June 28, 1919 • This created the terms of peace with Germany. • The world blamed Germany for starting the war. Foreign governments forced Germany to do the following:
1. Germany and its allies must accept full responsibility for the war.
2. All German business in other countries was taken away and given away
3. Germany was not allowed to build their army along the French- German border.
4. Germany needed to give up control of their coal mines to France
5. Germany had to give the land it took from France back to France
8. Germany had to pay reparations to France, Britain, Russia and their friends • Reparations = I’m sorry money
Treaty of Versailles League of Nations is Created under the Treaty • Similar to United Nations (UN) • To make sure that every country is secure, and no country is attacked. • Canada was an independent member of the League
League of Nations Problems with League of Nations • Required co-operation between countries • No military force. Only economic force. • America refused to Join, even though it was the President’s Ideas
Treaty of Versailles: Germany Controlled by League of NationsLand given to other countries What remained of Germany
Question: Was the Treaty of Versailles Fair????
After the War: Remembrance Day • In Canada we observe Remembrance Day • It is a day to remember the soldiers who fought for our freedom • It is observed at the eleventh hour, of the eleventh day, of the eleventh month, we pause for a moment to remember our soldiers
Therefore, we observe Remembrance Day on November 11th because the armistice was signed on November 11th 1918
Aftermath of WWI • 16 Million People dead worldwide (10 million soldiers, 6 million civilians) • 21 million wounded/injured • Veterans did not have good pensions or special medical services. • Not many jobs for veterans • Spanish Influenza (disease) …..
Spanish Influenza • Spanish Influenza (disease) spread by soldiers returning home. • 21 million dead worldwide (55,000 Canadians) • Many small aboriginal communities almost destroyed. • Schools and public places closed for months. • People had to wear breathing masks in some places
Why is WWI important for Canada? It had many effects • Economy • Women’s rights • International reputation • French-English Relations • Racism • Thousands Dead and Wounded • Canadian Pride and independence