Spain in the 19th Century LO: Toexplaintheimportanteventsthatoccurred in 19th Century Spain Match theimportant/Eventpersoneventtothedescription:
19th Century Timeline • Using a new side of paper, turnthe page horizontally and draw a line across • Put 1800 at theleft-handend and 1902 at theright-handend. • Put 1850 in themiddle. • You are goingto use thistimelinetomarkontheimportantevents and periods of 19th Century SpanishHistory
1808-1902 • DuringThePeninsulaWar of Independence (1808 to 1814) a new constitutionwaswrittenbytheleaders of TheSpanishGovernmentwhowereleadingtheresistancefromCadiz:The 1812 Constitution. ItabolishedTheAncienRegime and set up a ConstitutionalMonarchy. • But, in 1814 afterThe French hadbeendefeatedtheSpanish King Ferdinand VII returnedtoSpain. He rejectedthe 1812 Constitution and re-established “TheAncienRegime.” • Overthenext 20 yearsMilitaryUprisings and protestsmeantthatsomereformsweremadeto “TheAncienRegime”butitstillgaveverylittlefreedomtothepeople • When Ferdinand died in 1833 he namedhisdaughterIsabella as hishier. Thismademanypeopleangry as itwasillegalfor a daughtertobecomeMonarch. Thesepeopleweregenerallyconservative (TheNobility and Catholics). TheywantedFerdinand’sbrother Carlos to be King. Thisledto “TheCarlistWars” betweensupporters of Isabella and Carlos (1833-1860). TheCarlistseventuallylost.
Overthenext 40 yearslimitedreformsweremadetotheConstitutionbuttheywerenotsufficientand Isabellabecame so unpopularthat in 1868 sheabandonedSpain. • After 2 yearsshewasreplacedby Amadeus of Savoywhoagreedto a ConstitutionalMonarchythatgavethepeoplemuch more rights. However, lots of peopleopposedhim (Carlists, theChurch and peoplewhowanted a republic) so he abdicatedafter 3 years • A Republic (TheFirstRepublic) wasdeclared in 1873 buttherewasmuchargueingabouthowitshouldfunction. • In Alfonso XII Isabela’sson waspronouncedKing afterjust 11 months of being a republicin a processknown as theRestoration. After his death in 1885, his second wife, María Cristina de Austria, was the regent until 1902.
Thepoliticalsystem of TheRestorationwasbasedon2 pillars: -A new moderateconstitutionwrittenby Cánovas in 1876. Ithad a wide Bill of Rights; a sharedsovereignitybetweentheking and the Cortes; and a restrictedsuffrage. -The “turnismo”: 2 liberal parties(Conservativeparty of Cánovas, and Liberal party of Sagasta) rotated in goverment, althoughthisforcedthemtofalsifytheelectionsthroughrigging(“pucherazo”) and the “caciques” fromtowns and villages.
Theproblems of theRestoration: -Manypartieswereexcludedfromturnismo: carlists, republicans, democrats,… -Nationalism in Catalonia and theBasque Country. -Theworkers’ movement: socialism(foundation of PSOE in 1879 and UGT in 1888); anarchism (foundation of FTRE in 1881), whichbecamevery radical and agressive(assassination of Cánovas in 1897).
-Thedisaster of 1898: in ThePhilippinesand in CubaIndependence movementsweresupportedby USA and after a short wartheSpanisharmywasdefeatedbytheAmericans. Spainlosttheseterritories plus Puerto Rico and otherarchipielagos in thePacific. ThismeantforSpainaneconomicfailure and a deepideological and moral crisis as well.
Summary of “El turnismo” Draw a diagramthatsummarises “El Turnismo.”
2. ALFONSO XIII’S REIGN(1902-1931) • The new king, Alfonso XIII, wasabletomaintainthepoliticalsystemfrom1902 to 1917. • The “turnismo” nowhad 2 new leaderswhotriedtoimplement social improvements and tofinishwiththe “caciquismo”: Antonio Maura in theconservativeparty; Canalejas in the liberal party.
Themostimportantproblemduringthisperiodwasthe “TragicWeek”(Semana Trágica) in Barcelona(1909). Itwasmotivatedbythemobilization of soldierstofight in MoroccobecauseSpainwasinterested in establishinga protectorate in the North of thisterritory.Thistriggeredstrikes and riotsthatwererepressedwithgreatseveritybytheconservativegovernment. FinallypresidentMaura hadtoresign and the “turnismo” wasbroken.
Problemsgrewfrom1917 to 1923: -Thearmydemandedhigherwages and promotionbasedonseniorityand notonwarmerit. -Catalonianpoliticiansclaimed a new constitution and thecreation of a decentralizedstate. -A general strike in 1917 supportedbythetradeunions and theleftwingpartieswhoprotestedagainstthehighpriceswasharshlyrepressedbythegovernment.
So, between 1919 and 1923 severalgovernmentstriedtosolvetheproblemswithoutanysucces. • Thesituationevengotworsewith more violent strikes and the so called “desastre de Annual”(Annualdisaster) in 1921, where 10,000 SpanishsodiersdiedfightingagainstMorocanrebels.
Then, the king accepted the coup d’état of general Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923, who lead a period of dictatorship supported by the bourgeoisie, the church and the landowners. • Primo de Rivera banned all political parties(except his own, Unión Patriótica), forbade strikes and closed the parliament to restore public order. • He managed to defeat the Morocan rebels in Alhucemas(1925), and the war was over.
But the economic crisis in 1929, and the opposition of the nationalists, the workers’ movement and the intellectuals forced him to resign in 1930. • The discredit of the monarchy was very big because of the king’s support to the dictatorship. So, in the municipal elections on April 1931 the republican parties won in all the big cities and Alfonso XIII decided to leave the country.
3. THE SECOND REPUBLIC(1931-1936) • The provisional government and the constitution of 1931: a provisional government called for constituent elections. The left wing parties won and imposed their ideology in this constitution. • This constitution had an extensive bill of rights, popular sovereignty, the division of powers, the universal sufragge(male and female), the autonomy for the regions and the separation between the church and the state. • Alcalá Zamora was elected as president of the Second Spanish Republic.
The reformist biennium(31-33): The government was ruled by Azaña and was formed by a coalition of socialists and republicans. These were the most important reforms: -The decentralization of the state: Catalonia got its autononomy in 1932. Other regions began to elaborate their projects to get it.
-Social reform: 40 hours work, raise of wages, social insurances. -Agrarian reform: the “Ley de Bases de la Reforma Agraria”(1932) tried to distribute land among the poor peasants, but the process was very slow, and these peasants occupied the land with violence. -Military reform: reduced the number of officials retiring them with a good salary to get the support of the army.
-The religious reform: divorce and civil marriage were allowed; priests weren´t paid by the state any more; teaching was forbiden to the religious orders. -Educational reform: a free secular and compulsry education was implanted . 10,000 schools were built. Some of these reforms provoked strikes and riots, forcing Azaña to resign in 1933. New elections were won by the centre-rigth wing parties.
The conservative biennium(1933-35): The “Partido Radical” of Lerroux and the CEDA of Gil Robles ruled in coalition. The paralization of the reforms led to the October Revolution in 1934, which was hardly repressed in Asturias and in Catalonia(the autonomous government proclaimed the independence). New elections were held, and a coalition of the left-wing partieswon(“Frente Popular”).
The Frente Popular government(feb-jun. 1936): an increasing political radicalization took place. In the left-wing parties the supporters of a social revolution gained weight. In the right-wing parties Falange raised with the aim of implement a fascist regime. Falangistas, socialists, communists and anarchists fought in the streets, and riots and political murders were usual. In this situation the most conservative sectors decided to make a coup d’état to overthrow the republic.
4. THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR(1936-39) • The military uprising began in Morocco on 17th July, and it spread on 18th in the rest of Spain. • It succeded in the rural areas and it had the support from conservative sectors of the army, the church, the upperbourgeoisie, the monarchists and the carlists. Germany and Italy supported the rebels as well.
The Republic had a great support in industrialized areas and cities, and it counted on the left-wing parties, the proletariat, the progressive sectors of the army and the lower bourgeoisie. The USSR and the International Brigades(over 40,000 volunteers) helped the Republic too.
The militar deve- lopment of the war:
-July 1936-March 1937: the “nacionales” led by Franco tried to take Madrid, but after the battles of Jarama and Guadalajara they changed plans. Western Andalousia, Extremadura and the Basque Country were conquered. -March 1937-March 1938: the rebels, after conquered Asturias and Cantabria tried to divide the republican territories into two parts. The republicans launched the Ebro offensive to stop their advance, but finally Franco co arrived on the Mediterranean coast in Vinaroz..
-March 1938-April 1939: the nacionales conquered Catalonia and the republican government surrendered 1st April 1939.
Politics during the war: -The Republic: a social revolution took place. The government was ruled by the socialist Largo Caballero, and since 1937 by the comunist Negrín. This government was weakened by the division and the constant fights between the anarchists and the radical comunist(first the revolution, afterwards winning the war) against the comunists and the socialits(first winning the war, later the revolution).
-The Nacionales: they abolished all the repu- blican reforms. Franco was the leader and there was only one po- litical party allowed(FET y de las JONS).
The consequences of the war: -380,000 people died, and 350,000 had to leave the country; -Destuction of factories, transports, buildings and farmland; -A dictatorship of 36 years; -This war was the precedent of the WW2.
5. FRANCO’S DICTATORSHIP(1939-75) • We can distinguish two periods: -1939-1959: the basis of the new regime were implemented. • Domestic policy: the dictatorship used autarchy. • Foreign policy: Spain was isolated.
-1960-1975: great economic development, great demographic growth and an improvement in the Spaniards’ living standards. The interior and exterior opposition grew.