What is Imperialism? • The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation.
Motives for Nineteenth Century Imperialism Economic • Search for raw materials (e.g., copper, tin, gold, diamonds, rubber) • Search for markets to sell goods • Railroads and steamships make colonies more profitable Political /Nationalism • Competition among nations in Europe for land, prestige, etc. • Desire to expand territory through military force or by other means • Geostrategic goals (chokepoints, etc.)
Motives for Imperialism Religious • Desire to spread Christianity/missionaries Ideological • Social Darwinism • “White Man’s Burden”
Social Darwinism • Social Darwinism- Herbert Spencer and others used Charles Darwin’s idea of Survival of the Fittest and applied it to race coming to the erroneous conclusion that some races (Europeans) are better than others.
White Man’s Burden Take up the White Man’s Burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captive’s need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.
Motives For Imperialism Exploratory • David Livingstone (1813-1873) • Missionary and anti-slavery activist • Explored many unknown parts of Africa • Henry Stanley (1841-1904) • Journalist and explorer. • Found Livingstone and helped open Congo to Belgian imperialism
This is a drawing from a 1931 children’s book from Belgium showing life in the Belgian Congo in Africa. What does this picture say about how Europeans might have justified imperialism?
White Man’s Burden • Read paragraphs 1 and 3 on the back of your white sheet. Discuss with your table group • What is the white man’s burden? • How might it be used to justify imperialism?
White Man’s Burden Take up the White Man’s Burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest Te end for others sought, Watch Sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to naught. Rudyard Kilping, @1890’s
Consequences for Africa • Read the back of your yellow sheet as a group and answer the questions.
Christian Missionaries • Missionaries wanted to “civilize” and “westernize” the peoples of Asia, Africa and the Pacific. • Many tried in the process to end practices such as slavery and sati.
European Technology Machine Gun Railroads (steam engine) Quinine How was imperialism possible?
How? Machine gun (1884)
How? • Cures for tropical diseases such as malaria (quinine 1829) made interior exploration of Africa possible.
Examples of Imperialism: Africa Scramble for Africa
How? Took advantage of African rivalries and disunity. Over 75 ethnic groups and over 100 languages. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent
Examples of Imperialism: Dividing up China • Opium wars, Treaties of Nanjing, Hong Kong, and extra-territoriality • Spheres of Influence by British, French, Germans, Japanese and Russians. • US- Open Door Policy • Birth of Chinese Nationalism and the Boxer Rebellion
Examples of Imperialism • Neo-imperialism (economic) in Latin America • Banana republics
Resistance to Imperialism (Africa) • Eleven major uprisings against colonial powers including: • Samori Toure - Mandinkan kingdom in west Africa(French west Africa) • Maji Maji uprising in German East Africa (Tanzania) • Ethiopia (Menelik II and the Battle of Adowa 1896.)
Resistance to Imperialism • Rise of Middle Class in colonies • Educated by colonizers --paid less than Europeans --expansion of nationalism United western-educated Africans and Asians Provided leaders for later revolutions
Resistance to Imperialism • Provided a rising middle class who could communicate with each other • Rejected both traditional ways and European colonialism
Resistance to Imperialism In places such as Ethiopia, Siam and Japan, nations decided to modernize and emulate the west before they were taken over.
Consequences of Imperialism • Loss of political autonomy (control) • Spread of disease • Exploitation of land, resources and people • Conversions of Christianity • Roots of modern day conflicts (Rwanda, Middle East, Vietnam…)
Colonial Legacy • Education • Laws • Language • Architecture • Sports
Rise of Western Dominance • Economic, Political, Social, Cultural, & Artistic