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19th Century Imperialism: Asia

19th Century Imperialism: Asia

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19th Century Imperialism: Asia

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  1. 19th Century Imperialism: Asia

  2. India: Jewel in the Crown

  3. India: Jewel in the Crown • 1750’s Mughal Empire weakens and British East India Company defeatsIndian troops • British East India Company rules India until 1858

  4. India: Jewel in the Crown • Company has its own army led by British officers • Army is staffed by sepoys: Indian soldiers

  5. Discussion Question: • Why might this be a problem for the British?

  6. India: Jewel in the Crown • Why is India Britain’s most valuable colony (the brightest jewel in the crown!)? • Raw materials • New markets • Human resources; 300 million people!

  7. India: Jewel in the Crown • Indians forced to produce raw materials for British; • Forced to buy British goods • Indian competition with British goods was prohibited

  8. Positive Impact of Colonization: • Modernization! • World’s 3rd largest railroad, modern road network, telegraph and telephone lines, dams, bridges, irrigation canals

  9. Positive Impact of Colonization: • Sanitation and public health improved • Schools and colleges were founded (but English language & Western customs taught) • Literacy rates increased

  10. Negative Impact of Colonization: • British held political and economic power • Restricted Indian-owned industries • Cash crops result in loss of self-sufficiency & famine

  11. Negative Impact of Colonization • Indian culture disrupted by missionaries and racist attitudes • Indians treated as 2nd class citizens

  12. Negative Impact of Colonization • “It is the consciousness of the inherent superiority of the European which has won for us India. However well educated and clever a native may be, and however brave he may prove himself, I believe that no rank we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British officer.” • --Lord Kitchener

  13. Discussion Question: • Have you ever had anyone who disrespected your culture in some way? (your religion, language, beliefs, etc) • What did they do and how did you react?

  14. The Sepoy Rebellion • Cultural Conflict: • New rifle cartridges being used by the Sepoys were made of animal fat • To use the cartridges the soldiers had to bite off both ends – OUTRAGE! Why?

  15. The Sepoy Rebellion

  16. The Sepoy Rebellion • The Sepoys refused & rebelled against the British • British eventually put down rebellion

  17. The Sepoy Rebellion • In 1858 India was placed under the direct control of the British government

  18. The Sepoy Rebellion • Queen Victoria of England was given title “Empress of India”

  19. Nationalism Rises • In 1800’s nationalist movement begins • Indians resent being 2nd class citizens in their own country • Indian National Congress forms; calls for self-government • But independence won’t happen until 1947!

  20. China: Another Jewel

  21. Discussion Question: • Have you ever wanted to trade someone for something they had that you wanted…but they didn’t want anything you had to offer them? • What did you do?

  22. China & the West • In the late 18th century, China is ruled by an emperor under the Qing Dynasty.

  23. China & the West • China has chosen isolation • No interaction with western powers • China is strong politically because it is largely self-sufficient

  24. The Tea-Opium Connection • China has little interest in trading with the West, but… • High demand for tea & silk in Great Britain at this time

  25. The Tea-Opium Connection • The Chinese DO NOT want to trade with GB, nor do they want manufactured goods from GB • Restrict trade with the British • Only allowed to use one Chinese port

  26. The Tea-Opium Connection • British were determined to find a product that the Chinese would buy in large quantities

  27. The Tea-Opium Connection • Product? • OPIUM! • Great Britain floods China with opium from India (Why India?) 1835 – 12 million Chinese addicted

  28. The Opium War • The Qing emperor demands the trade stop, but British refused • Results in The Opium War • GB crushed outdated Chinese forces

  29. The Opium War • NANKING TREATY OF 1842: • The Chinese were forced to: • Open new ports • Legalize the opium trade • Give Hong Kong to GB • Accept extraterritoriality

  30. The Opium War • Extraterritoriality: • British citizens living in China were not subject to Chinese laws or courts

  31. Foreign Influence Grows • China’s population booms from 1790-1850 • Hunger widespread • Sparks Taiping Rebellion!

  32. Foreign Influence Grows • Massive peasant army takes control over large areas of China • Eventually defeated by Qing troops and outside forces BUT…

  33. Foreign Influence Grows • Other countries took advantage of internal unrest and attacked • Through treaties, European countries & Japan gain a sphere of influence in China

  34. Foreign Influence Grows • US feared China would be colonized by Europeans • Encouraged the adoption of the Open Door Policy

  35. Foreign Influence Grows • Open Door Policy: • All countries were given equal access to trade in all regions of China • Led to increasing unrest among the Chinese

  36. Foreign Influence Grows • Another rebellion! • Boxer Rebellion: Campaign against imperial rule and foreign privilege • Rebellion fails, but Chinese nationalism forces changes in China

  37. Japan: A Unique Story

  38. Discussion Question: • Have you ever been bullied by someone who threatened to do something to you if you didn’t do what they wanted? • What did you do?

  39. Japan: Victim • Japan closed to European influence since 1600s • Commodore Perry sent to Japan by U.S. President to demand trade rights • Gives ultimatum – will return in 1 year

  40. Japan: Victim • Japan forced to sign Treaty of Kanagawa • US gets open trade with Japan • Japanese are angry shogun gave in to foreigner’s demands

  41. Japan: Aggressor • Shogun replaced by a young emperor, Mutsuhito • Meiji Era – Meiji means “enlightened rule” • Japan decides to modernize to save culture!

  42. Japan: Aggressor • Studied & adopted Western ways, including industrialization • By 1890, Japan had a modern economy & was the strongest military power in Asia

  43. Japan: Aggressor • Wanted to expand their empire to show they were a powerful nation • Japan attacked China & Russia! • Takes Taiwan, Pescadores Islands, Manchuria & Korea

  44. Japan: Aggressor • 1910 Japan officially controlled Korea • Banned teaching of Korean • Koreans forced to take Japanese names • Farmers forced off lands; businesses handed over to Japanese

  45. Imperialism in Southeast Asia

  46. Europeans in SE Asia • Dutch ruled whole island chain of Indonesia, called the Dutch East Indies • British ruled in Burma (modern Myanmar) & Malaysia • French ruled directly in Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, & Vietnam)

  47. The U.S. in SE Asia • Spanish rule in Philippines until U.S. wins Spanish-American War • U.S. promised to return Philippines to nationalists, but kept as a colony

  48. What does this Mean? • Tensions caused by the competition for colonies was one of the underlying causes of World War I