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PAKISTAN Wind energy Basics November 2006

PAKISTAN Wind energy Basics November 2006. Mechanics of Wind Energy PAKISTAN March 2007. Index. IPEK energy Wind Energy – An Introduction Wind Energy – Global Scenario Legal Frame / AEDB and Role of AEDB Wind Resources in Pakistan Wind Energy – Some Practical Issues

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PAKISTAN Wind energy Basics November 2006

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  1. PAKISTANWind energy BasicsNovember 2006 Mechanics of Wind EnergyPAKISTANMarch 2007

  2. Index • IPEK energy • Wind Energy – An Introduction • Wind Energy – Global Scenario • Legal Frame / AEDB and Role of AEDB • Wind Resources in Pakistan • Wind Energy – Some Practical Issues • Wind Energy – An Analysis / Outlook Pakistan

  3. IPEK energy GmbH

  4. IPEK energy GmbH We • are an independentengineering & consultancy company • support you from acquisition to turnkey ready construction of renewable power generation systems worldwide • offer skilful support with international financing and after commissioning • take the technical business management • are very flexible and act in close cooperation with our clients exactly to the requirements of the international markets

  5. Key Services • Engineering & Consulting • acquire suitable sites • complete permitting procedures • negotiate required Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) • organize international funding • supervision of construction till take over of the plan • control operations management • Wind Measuring • standard IEC confirm measuring trough Wind Mast • and SODAR measuring • Bankable Feasibility Studies • Due Diligence • Emissions Trading

  6. Osman Ipek – Managing Director • Electrical Engineer (Main Branch Renewable Energies) • Active in Wind Branch since 2000 • project development • project management • project implementation • engineering • due diligence • measurement and monitoring systems • wind resource assessment • teaching and education, concepts; strategies; system layout • 18 Wind farm Projects realized • More than 800MW projects developed in 6 countries • Due Diligence of more than 220MW wind projects • Feasibility studies for more than 40 wind farms • Currently on going Projects of >500MW in Turkey, Iran and Pakistan

  7. Osman Ipek – Managing Director • Countries of Work Experience (alphabetical order): • Croatia • Germany • Hungary • Iran • Italy • Lithuania • Pakistan • Spain • Turkey • Yemen

  8. Memberships Partners German Wind Energy Association WINDTEST Grevenbroich GmbH Wind Rose Consultancy The Association of German Engineers Membership/ Partners Pakistan Wind Energy Association

  9. Wind Energy – An Introduction

  10. How wind is converted to power? • A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades • The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends • on the density of the air • the rotor area • and the wind speed. • In other words you can get more energy: • the "heavier" the air • the “bigger” the rotor • the “higher” the wind speed

  11. Key Components of a Wind Farm • Wind Turbines • Civil Works • Foundations • Road Network • Crane Places • Service buildings • Residential Quarter • Electrical Works • Step-up transformers • Wiring • Sub-station for power delivery • Wind Measuring Towers

  12. Components of Wind Turbine 690V

  13. Wind Energy – Global Scenario

  14. Global Cumulative Installed Capacity 1995-2006

  15. Global Annual Installed Capacity 1995-2006

  16. Capacity Addition - 2006

  17. Pakistan ? Annual Installed Capacity by Region

  18. Turbine Size Growth

  19. Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment • Legal Frame • Wind Energy potential • Tariff

  20. Legal Frame in Pakistan Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB)

  21. Background • Government of Pakistan created the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) in May 2003 to act as the central national body on the subject of Renewable Energy • Air Marshal (Retd) Shahid Hamid was appointed as the Chairman of the Board

  22. Target of AEDB • Ensure 10% Share of Alternative Energy Technologies in National Grid by Year 2015 • Act as Central Agencya- Awarenessb- Policiesc- Facilitate Creation of Base in Pakistan for Alternative Energy (AE) Technologies • Develop National Plans and Policies for AEa- Tax Holidaysb- Encourage Private Sectorc- Facilitate Investment • Foster Sustainable Development a- Facilitate Enhancement of Technical Skills.b- Initiate & Incubate Projects

  23. Achievements Working actively in the fields of: • Wind Power • Solar Power • Micro Hydels • Biomass

  24. Why Wind Power for Pakistan • Vast resources (estimated capacity around 40,000 MW) • Area closer to the Grid resulting in easier off-take by power purchaser • Wind Energy is a proven technology which can be trusted and guaranteed for project life • Most Cost effective (after small hydro which are located in remote inaccessible areas and with grid availability)

  25. Benefits for Sponsors – Legal Frame • Guaranteed Sale • Wind Risk is covered by the Gov. of Pakistan • Guaranteed Returns for Investors • Protection against foreign exchange rate fluctuations • Protection against inflation in local markets • No Taxes (income / import etc) • Benefit of Carbon Credits shared • Complete Security package to protect Interests of Investors and Lenders

  26. AEDB - Wind Power • LOIs have been issued to almost 80 interested Investors • Investors are coming from Pakistan but also from Canada, Malaysia, Turkey, USA etc • Policy for development of renewable energy in Pakistan has been approved • PPA is in final stage • Up-front Tariff have been approved by NEPRA to facilitate fast track project development • Several Investors have accept the approved Tariff of NEPRA

  27. LOI – Procedure in Pakistan • Registration with AEDB • Submission of proposal to AEDB • Issuance of LOI by AEDB on submission of fee of Rs. 600,000 - after due diligence of financial strength of the company • Land allocation (on availability from Gov. of Sindh) • Feasibility Study (for onward submission to NEPRA & NTDC/KESC after AEDB's vetting and approval) • Generation License (from NEPRA) • Power Purchaser's commitment for purchase of power • Tariff acceptance. • Energy Purchase Agreement • Implementation Agreement • LOS (to be issued by AEDB)

  28. Processing Schedule (< 50MW)

  29. A Typical Wind Farm Project Plan

  30. Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment • Legal Frame • Tariff • Wind Energy potential 

  31. Tariff - International Wind Tariff onshore 2006 in comparison Pakistan

  32. Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment • Legal Frame • Tariff • Wind Energy potential  

  33. Wind Resources in Pakistan

  34. Wind Resources in Pakistan • The project area for the wind mapping was 1,100km along Sindh and Balochistan coast and up to 100km deep northward over land from the coast. • 44 stations for collecting wind data have been installed to study the wind regime as shown in figures.

  35. Wind Resources in Baluchistan List of 23: Aghore, Basol, Bella, Gaddani, Gawadar, Hoshab, Hub-Choki, Jiwani, Liari, Makola, Managi, Mand, Nasirabad, Nelunt, Ormara, Othal, Pasni, Phore, Pishukan, Ramra, Tump, Turbat, Winder.

  36. Wind Resources in Sindh List of 21 stations: Badin, Baghan, Churhar-Jamali, Gharo, Golarchi, Hawks-Bay, Hyderabad, Jati, Kadhan, Karachi, Kati-Bandar, Matli, Mirpur-Sakro, Nooriabad, Sajawal, Shah-Bandar, Talhar, Thano-Bula-Khan, Jamshoro, DHA Karachi, Thatta.

  37. “Wind Corridor” in Pakistan . Average summer wind direction from Gharo to Hyderabad

  38. Monthly Energy Yield vs. Time of Day

  39. Wind at 80m height (calculated)

  40. Basis Frame of Wind Energy Investment • Legal Frame • Tariff • Wind Energy potential   

  41. Wind Power in Pakistan • 14 Investors have been allocated land for project development • 4 Investors have already installed own wind measuring stations • 3 Investors have been started the foundation work of own wind measuring stations

  42. Ground Breaking Ceremony MASTERWIND

  43. Ground Breaking Ceremony ZORLU

  44. Wind Energy – Some Practical Issues

  45. Wind speed • The wind speed is extremely important for the amount of energy a wind turbine can convert to electricity • The energy content of the wind varies with the cube (the third power) of the average wind speed • If the wind speed is twice as high it contains eight times as much energy 2³ = 2 x 2 x 2 =8 • Wind measuring is important to get the real wind speed at the specific site

  46. Wind measuring The best way of measuring wind speeds at a prospective wind turbine site is to fit an anemometer to the top of a mast which has the same height as the expected hub height of the wind turbine to be used. This way one avoids the uncertainty involved in recalculating the wind speeds to a different height. By fitting the anemometer to the top of the mast one minimizes the disturbances of airflows from the mast itself. If anemometers are placed on the side of the mast it is essential to place them in the prevailing wind direction in order to minimize the wind shade from the tower

  47. 50m Wind Mast –Zephyr Power

  48. 60m Wind Measuring Mast- NPE First 60m Wind Measuring mast in Pakistan (www.KonDen.com)

  49. 80m Wind Measuring Mast- BEL First 80m Wind Measuring mast in Pakistan (www.windroseone.com)

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