170 likes | 398 Vues
Wind energy. Wind is a form of solar energy . Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover.
E N D
Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover.
Temperatures vary according to the amount of sun it gets Uneven heating of the Earth's atmosphere and surface Balance between warm and cool air is constantly changing, creating wind. How is wind created?
The terms "wind energy" or "wind power" describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. Wind power is the conversion of windenergy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping ect.
Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in motion, also called wind. Total wind energy flowing through an imaginary area A during the time t is: E =1/2 M v 2 = ½ (A v t ρ) v 2 = ½ (At ρ) v 3 where ρ is the air density; v is the wind speed; Avt is the volume of air passing through A Avtρ is therefore the mass m passing per unit time. Note that ½ ρv2 is the kinetic energy of the moving air per unit volume.
Power is energy per unit time, so the wind power incident on A (e.g. equal to the rotor area of a wind turbine) is: P= E/t = ½ (A ρ) v 3
Wind Turbines Wind turbines turn in the moving air and power an electric generator that supplies an electric current. Simply stated, a wind turbine is the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity.
Rotor Common HAWT Construction • Blades are connected to a hub, which is connected to a shaft • Rotational speed will depend on blade geometry, number of blades, and wind speed (40 to 400 revolutions per minute typical speed range) • Gear box needed to increase speed to 1200-1800 RPM for generator
Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the orientation of the rotor Vertical AxisHorizontal Axis
Sizes and Applications • Small (10 kW) • Homes • Farms • Remote Application • Intermediate • (10-250 kW) • Village Power • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power • Large (660 kW - 2+MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Community Wind
Advantages of Wind Power The wind blows day and night, which allows windmills to produce electricity throughout the day. Wind power is very low cost (after the initial production and installation)Wind power is clean and renewable and sustainable resource. Wind energy is a domestic, renewable source of energy that generates no pollution and has little environmental impact. Land used for wind farms can also be used for other profitable activities including farming and forestry.Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply.
Disadvantages of Wind Power The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies from zero to storm force. This means that wind turbines do not produce the same amount of electricity all the time. Noise Disturbances : Though wind energy is non pollution, the turbines may create a lot of noise. Threat to Wildlife : Due to large scale construction of wind turbines on remote location, it could be a threat to wild life near by. Birds are killed by wind turbines.