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Wind Energy

Wind Energy. Electricity In 2005, 18 GW produced in US, enough to supply 1.6 million households By 2008, 121 GW worldwide (1.5 %) It has doubled in the last 3.5 years Largest farm in US in Texas 421 turbines, 230,000 homes Cape Cod/Long Island plan Capacity in US

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Wind Energy

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  1. Wind Energy • Electricity • In 2005, 18 GW produced in US, enough to supply 1.6 million households • By 2008, 121 GW worldwide (1.5 %) • It has doubled in the last 3.5 years • Largest farm in US in Texas • 421 turbines, 230,000 homes • Cape Cod/Long Island plan • Capacity in US • 170 turbines, 25 sq miles, 500,000 homes (2007) • 28,635 MW, 1.5 M homes (as of April 30, 2009).

  2. 20 % by 2030 initiative • 300 GW goal • The wind industry is on track to grow to a size capable of installing 16,000 MW/year

  3. Politics and economics • Not in my backyard • The cost of the project grows (the big dig phenomenon

  4. Cape cod • 130 wind turbines • 420 megawatts • 3/4 of the Cape and Islands electricity needs • The late Senator Kennedy and the candidates for his seat.

  5. Long Island Wind Farm • Each wind turbine will generate 3.6 megawatts. • The project will consist of 40 turbines, producing a total of 140 megawatts. • The facility will generate enough energy to power approximately 44,000 homes. • Each turbine rotor has three blades approximately 182 ft. long. • The turbines shut down at wind speeds beyond 56 mph. • Project called off in 2007 (voted down) • But new project surfacing in 2008/09 700 (MWs)

  6. Rhode Island • State officials picked Deepwater Wind to build a $1.5-billion, 385-megawatt wind farm in federal waters off Block Island. The 100-turbine project could provide 1.3 terawatt-hours (TW·h) of electricity per year - 15 percent of all electricity used in the state.

  7. 2005 Report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory • Estimates offshore US wind potential • Offshore has several advantages over onshore • Land with greatest wind potentials are far from populated centers • Less of an eye sore • Stronger, more dependable winds • Use of larger, more economical turbines

  8. US Offshore Wind Resource Exclusions Inside 5nm –100% exclusion􀂾 67% -5 to 20nm resource exclusion to account for avian, marine mammal, view shed, restricted habitats, shipping routes & other habitats. 􀂾 33% exclusion–20 to 50 nm􀂾

  9. Deep Water Wind Turbine Development

  10. Deep water • In June 2009, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued five exploratory leases for wind power production on the Outer Continental Shelf offshore from New Jersey and Delaware. The leases authorize data gathering activities, allowing for the construction of meteorological towers on the Outer Continental Shelf from six to 18 miles offshore.

  11. Recent Investments • Secretary Chu, Governor Patrick Announce $25 Million for Massachusetts Wind Technology Testing Center May 2009 • 43 million Invested in 41 projects devoted to offshore wind farms; May 2011

  12. US Potential • Over 1 TW, which is about equal to the total capacity for electricity generation in US. • Requires research into the construction of off(off)shore turbines • Research into potential environmental impacts • Research into best sites (wind/wave action, whale migration, ect.) • 10-15 yrs from commercial deepwater technology

  13. Hydro • 7 % of US electricity • 70 % of renewable electricity • Research: • improving environmental impact of damming • Expand use • Hydrokinetic (wave, tidal, current, and ocean thermal energy)

  14. Potential of harnessing wave energy • Young technology • But maybe 7 % of our total electricity

  15. Fusion • Rxn • Nuclei confined by magnetic field • Capture neutrons • Extract heat • Drive reaction (self-sustained) • Steam-turbine-electricity • Physics of plasma • Materials • Stability

  16. Research timeline • JET – 16 MW for 0.5 s • 1983-2004 • ITER – 500 MW for 1000 s • 2018 start date • DEMO – 2000 MW continuously • 2030-2040

  17. Carbon trapping

  18. Energy use by sector (worldwide) • Transportation 20 % • Industrial 38 % • Residential heating, lighting, and appliances 11 % • Commercial heating, lighting, sewer, ect, 5 % • 27 % lost in generation and transmission

  19. Electric Cars • Plug in to charger in garage • Limited mileage, but ideal for most commuters • Equivalent to over 150 mpg on a cost basis • Pb, NiCd, NiMH, Li ion, Li ion polymer batteries (expensive to replace)

  20. Toyota RAV4-EV • Only 328 leased/purchased to individuals in 2003-04. • Sold for $42000 in CA and Arizona (with Cal rebate; $29,000 • Battery replacement $26000 (third party vendors) • About 80-120 miles (130-190 km) on full battery • Top speed 78 miles/hr • 0-60 in 18 s • Charging takes 5 hrs

  21. Debate: why have these electric cars not been successful • Cost? • Performance? • Conspiracy between oil companies and auto industry

  22. 2007 electric cars • Telsa Roadster • 100 vehicles to be sold, 650 in 2008 • Lithium ion batteries • 0-60 in 4 s • 135 mph equiv. • 2 cents/mile • 245 miles/charge • Top speed: 125 mph • $90,000 • Company Strategy

  23. Who killed the electric car? • Chris Payne 2007 Documentary • Consumers • Lots of ambivalence to new technology, unwillingness to compromise on decreased range and increased cost for improvements to air quality and reduction of dependence on foreign oil. • Batteries • Limited range (60-70 miles) and reliability Lithium ion batteries, the same technology available in laptops would have allowed the EV-1 to be upgraded to a range of 300 miles per charge. • Oil companies • Fearful of losing business to a competing technology, they supported efforts to kill the ZEV mandate. They also bought patents to prevent modern batteries from being used in US electric cars. • Car companies • Negative marketing, sabotaging their own product program, failure to produce cars to meet existing demand, unusual business practices with regards to leasing versus sales.

  24. Continued • Government • The federal government joined in the auto industry suit against California, has failed to act in the public interest to limit pollution and require increased fuel economy, has promoted the purchase of vehicles with poor fuel efficiency through preferential tax breaks, and has redirected alternative fuel research from electric towards hydrogen. • California Air Resources Board • The CARB, headed by Alan Lloyd, caved to industry pressure and repealed the ZEV mandate. Lloyd was given the directorship of the new fuel cell institute, creating an inherent conflict of interest. • Hydrogen fuel cell • The hydrogen fuel cell was presented by the film as an alternative that distracts attention from the real and immediate potential of electric vehicles to an unlikely future possibility embraced by automakers, oil companies and a pro-business administration in order to buy time and profits for the status quo. GM brought back the EV. It is a hybrid that also plugs into the wall.

  25. currently • As of September 2011 series production models available in some countries include the Tesla Roadster, REVAi, Buddy, Mitsubishi i MiEV, Nissan Leaf, Smart ED, and Wheego Whip LiFe. • The Leaf and the i MiEV, with worldwide cumulative sales of more than 15,000 units each, are the top selling highway-capable electric cars by September 2011.[3][4]

  26. Nissan Leaf • All electric • 5-dor hatchback • Front wheel drive • $32 K-$40 K • 117 mile range • 99 miles/Gallon equiv. • 24 kW-h Li-ion battery • Top speed 93 mile/hr • 0-60 in 10 s • Recharging – 8 hrs on 220 V line

  27. Li ion battery • Battery specifications • Energy/weight160 Wh/kg • Energy/size270 Wh/L • Power/weight1800 W/kg • Charge/discharge efficiency99.9%[1] • Energy/consumer-price2.8-5Wh/US$[2] • Self-discharge rate5%-10%/month • Time durability(24-36) months • Cycle durability1200 cycles • Nominal Cell Voltage3.6 / 3.7 V

  28. electrochemistry • In a lithium-ion battery the lithium ions are transported to and from the cathode or anode, with the transition metal, Co, in LixCoO2 being oxidized from Co3+ to Co4+ during charging, and reduced from Co4+ to Co3+ during discharge.

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