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Wind Energy

Wind Energy. A Growing Industry Worldwide. Wind Energy is increasing at a rate of approximately 30% annually. What is wind? What is wind energy? What are the Pros and Cons of wind energy? Where have wind farms been developed? How does wind energy affect the local Community?

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Wind Energy

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  1. Wind Energy

  2. A Growing Industry Worldwide • Wind Energy is increasing at a rate of approximately 30% annually. • What is wind? • What is wind energy? • What are the Pros and Cons of wind energy? • Where have wind farms been developed? • How does wind energy affect the local Community? • Who benefits from wind energy production? • Can wind energy improve global warming and climate change?

  3. What is Wind? Wind is the stabilizing of areas of high and low atmospheric pressure, created by the uneven heating of the Earth's surfaces: land, water, and air. The greater the pressure difference between these areas, the harder the wind blows. Wind also exists as the circulation of air around a high or low pressure area.

  4. What is Wind Energy? • Wind energy is the converting of wind power to electrical power through the use of windmills or turbines. • Farmed electricity is sent to transformers where voltage is increased and sent to the power grid via transmission lines.

  5. Windmill versus Turbine On farms and residences: On the open plain: Innovative use began in the 1970‘s. Large scale use began in the 1990’s. Have 2 or 3 blades, 330 ft or more. The pitch can be changed to achieve a higher or lower efficiency. • Originally was used to generate electricity and pump water from the ground. • They had multiple blades with a fixed pitch. • (1900 – 1930) Roscoe Texas

  6. Positive Attributes of Wind Energy • Wind Energy is a true option to fossil fuels, and nuclear energy. • Wind Energy decreases the need for fossil fuels to generate electricity. • It is a clean, variable, and unlimited resource with no waste products or pollutants.

  7. Negative Attributes of Wind Energy 1 • Turbines are large, bulky, & noisy (55 db). This noise is about the level of a soft conversation. • Wind farm turbines are very expensive to set up and require many acres for efficient functioning with little air turbulence. • Turbine maintenance is regular; the dangerous height has led to fatal accidents. • Limited wind speeds between 12 - 55 mph can be used to produce 50 – 300 kW of electricity. • A brake is used in high wind speeds to prevent damage.

  8. Negative Attributes of Wind Energy 2 • Transmission lines connect wind farms to the power grid and are limited to a maximum voltage. • People dislike transmission lines changing the landscape. • Turbines are hazardous to wildlife. Migratory birds have flown into turbines and been killed. • Hurricanes or tornados may occur and cause damage where wind farms are most efficient. • Off-shore concerns include hurricanes, wave action, seabed volatility, birds and marine wild life, navigation, tourism, servicing and maintenance.

  9. Where have Wind Farms been developed? Large, rural, windy areas such as mountain and ridge tops,mesas, plains, and mountain passes are best for wind farms.

  10. Wind Energy Growth • Locally: • Roscoe, located in Texas high planes, was re-energized by installing a wind farm in its cotton fields. • This was part of a 57% increase in wind energy production in 2007. • Nationally: • California led the nation for 26 years in wind energy technology and electricity production (1980 – 2006). California has maximized their use of land best suited for wind farms. Their increases occur as old technology is replaced with more efficient equipment. • In 2007, wind energy rose 43% in the United States. • Today, Texas is the largest producer of wind energy in the United States, followed by Iowa, and, California. • Globally: • Germany, Spain, and Denmark are leaders in wind energy production and continue to plan new wind farms. • In 2007, the only off-shore wind farms were in Europe.

  11. Roscoe’s Location and Wind Speed

  12. Installed Wind Capacity, 1999 – 2007, in Megawatts Source is U.S. Department of Energy

  13. Wind Energy Requires More Transmission Lines The variability of the wind is difficult to predict, causing power grid operators to make adjustments .

  14. As Demand Increases, Supply is Affected The rapid growth of the industry has led to a shortage of turbine supplies! Megawatts of Wind Energy Globally in 2002 vs. 2007

  15. Wind Farms … … can be land based, like Spain. … can be offshore, like Denmark.

  16. Who benefits from wind energy production? Locally, Nationally, Internationally: Wind Energy in Bolivia: Industrialized nations, especially North America and Europe benefit now. India and China have increasing growth. Russia and the Ukraine should pursue wind energy. Wind energy could be used to create fresh drinking water by powering desalinization plants, which need constant power. Rural areas in South America benefit from wind energy!

  17. How does Wind Energy affect the local Community? • State-wide, wind energy currently provides 3% of Texas electricity demand. • Roscoe, Texas is important because they set an example of how a wind farm could improve a community economically, with minimal affect on the cotton crop or farm land soil. • Nationally, wind currently provides 0.00039% of USA electricity demand. • Wind energy is helping meet our nations increasing energy needs and decrease dependence on fossil fuels. • Internationally, wind currently provides 3.7% of EU electricity demand. • In Europe, wind energy has not decreased the amount of carbon emissions placed in the atmosphere! • Eastern European countries increased their CO2 emissions.

  18. Can Wind Energy improve global warming and climate change? Yes! Wind energy can have a positive, immediate affect on the earth’s atmosphere by reducing how much CO2is produced, only if wind farms replace electricity generated by coal, oil, and natural gas.

  19. Conclusions • Wind Energy is a renewable resource that benefits the local communities (villages, towns, and cities) by providing people with jobs and clean electricity. • Wind energy can decrease CO2 in the atmosphere and slow global warming! • Countries can use this technology to help the environment and meet electricity demands!

  20. Bibliography • "Chapter 11 - Energy Report - Wind Energy." Susan Combs - Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. 10 Apr. 2009 http://www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/energy/renewable/wind.php. • "DANISH WIND INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION - France: Wind power is fastest growing power technology." VINDMØLLEINDUSTRIEN - windpower.org. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.windpower.org/composite-2205.htm>. • "DANISH WIND INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION - Germany: Community investment drives wind power success." VINDMØLLEINDUSTRIEN - windpower.org. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.windpower.org/composite-2236.htm>. • "DANISH WIND INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION - New managing director in Danish Wind Industry Ass." VINDMØLLEINDUSTRIEN - windpower.org. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.windpower.org/composite-2032.htm>. • "The Energy Story - Chapter 16: Wind Energy." Energy Quest Room. 09 Apr. 2009 <http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter16.html>. • "File:United States Wind Resources and Transmission Lines map.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:United_States_Wind_Resources_and_Transmission_Lines_map.jpg>.

  21. Bibliography • Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy Basics A Guide to Small and Micro Wind Systems. Boston: Chelsea Green Company, 1999. • "How to Build an Offshore Wind Farm." Fogonazos. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://fogonazos.blogspot.com/2006/12/how-to-build-offshore-wind-farm.html>. • Innovative Economy. 13 Apr. 2009 <http://www.innovativeeconomy.com/wp-content/images/global-wind-map.jpg>. • Macaulay, David. "The Mechanics of Movement, The Windmill." New Way Things Work. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998. 34-35. • "Moving Air." Usborne Science & Experiments The Power of Nature. Grand Rapids: Usborne Ltd., 1997. 10-11. • "Pros And Cons Of Residential Wind Power | Wind Power Generators." Home Wind Power Generators. 09 Apr. 2009 <http://windpowergeneratorshome.com/2009/01/pros-cons-residential-wind-power/>.

  22. Bibliography • "Roscoe, Texas (TX 79545) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, move, moving, houses news, sex offenders." Stats about all US cities - real estate, relocation info, house prices, home value estimator, recent sales, cost of living, crime, race, income, photos, education, maps, weather, houses, schools, neighborhoods, and more. 13 Apr. 2009 <http://www.city-data.com/city/Roscoe-Texas.html>. •  "SPIEGEL ONLINE - Druckversion - Climate Change Paradox: Wind Turbines in Europe Do Nothing for Emissions-Reduction Goals - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International." SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten. 13 Apr. 2009 <http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/0,1518,druck-606763,00.html>. • "Texas Wind Energy." SECO | State Energy Conservation Office. 11 Apr. 2009 <http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_wind.htm>. • "Update 24 Data." Welcome to the Earth Policy Institute, dedicated to building an environmentally sustainable economy: an "eco-economy." 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/Update24_data.htm>. • "Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States." Renewable Resource Data Center (RReDC) Home Page. 10 Apr. 2009 <http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/chp3.html>. • "Wind Energy." Usborne Science & Experiments The Power of Nature. Grand Rapids: Usborne Ltd., 1997. 78-79. • "Wind power capacity." : Wind Power Works. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.windpowerworks.net/wind_facts/wind_power_capacity.html>.

  23. Bibliography • "Winds of Change Blow into Roscoe, Texas : NPR." NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts. 8 Apr. 2009 <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16658695>. • World Energy Council. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/bolivia_88.jpg>. • World Energy Council. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.worldenergy.org/documents/newzealand_46.jpg>. • World Energy Council. 14 Apr. 2009 <http://www.worldenergy.org/news__events/wec_energy_photo_of_the_year/1657.asp>. • World of Science (Children's Reference). Grand Rapids: Parragon, 2003.

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