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The Nature of Nature vs. Nurture

The Nature of Nature vs. Nurture

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The Nature of Nature vs. Nurture

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  1. The Nature of Nature vs. Nurture Kevin P. Spotts George L. Gradwell, Jr Zachary R. Kaplan

  2. Background of Nature vs. nurture • Conceptual Origins • Nature- behavioral and personality traits originate from heredity • Traits come from biological parents • Nurture- behavioral and personality traits come from the environment in which individual is raised in • Traits come from setting vs.

  3. Background of nature vs. Nurture • Historical Origins • Exact origin of titled concept is unknown • Discussed by Francis Galton (English Victorian Polymath), Shakespeare, Charles Darwin, and John Locke (English Philosopher) in various settings

  4. Description of study • What factors influence one’s opinions on “Nature vs. Nurture?” • Decade Born? • Political Affiliation? • Number of Siblings? • Is there a noticeable difference in the opinions of males and females?

  5. Procedure: Data collection • Written survey taken by subjects in public place (Valley Square) • Systematic sampling- every other person seen was chosen to take survey • Parents with young children disregarded for politeness • Surveys taken on Wednesday, June 1st, between 3pm and 5pm • Additional surveys completed by adult members of Zack and George’s scout troops • We needed more old people

  6. The Survey • Gender (circle one): Male Female • Decade Born (circle one): 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s • Political Affiliation (circle One): Republican Democrat Independent Other None • Number of siblings (circle one): 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ • In your opinion, do someone’s behavioral and personality traits originate more from heredity (NATURE) or the environment in which he/she was raised (NURTURE)? Please circle the ratio of the relationship between “nature” and “nurture” that is closest to your opinions. • 100% Nature • 75% Nature, 25% Nurture • 50% Nature, 50% Nurture • 25% Nature, 75% Nurture • 100% Nurture

  7. Procedure: analysis • All data categorized and entered into fathom • Some groups combined so all conditions could be met • Response to Nature vs. Nurture question, decade born, political affiliation • X² Test of Independence performed on each variable • Conditions checked and met • Mechanics performed • Conclusions made • Two out of four variables (gender, decade born, political affiliation, number of siblings) DO affect one’s opinions on Nature vs. Nurture!

  8. Class activity • Predict which two variables have a relationship with one’s opinion on nature vs. nurture • Gender? • Decade Born? • Political Affiliation? • Number of Siblings? • What is the relationship?

  9. Exploratory Data Analysis

  10. Exploratory Data- Gender vs. “nature vs. Nurture” Choice A: Majority/All Nature Choice B: 50/50 Nature/Nurture Choice C: Majority/ All Nurture M: Male F: Female

  11. Exploratory Data- Gender vs. “nature vs. Nurture” • Males: • Choice A: 27.1% • Choice B: 35.6% • Choice C: 37.3% • Females: • Choice A: 20.8% • Choice B: 45.8% • Choice C: 33.3%

  12. Exploratory Data: Decade Born vs. “Nature vs. Nurture” Choice A: Majority/All Nature Choice B: 50/50 Nature/Nurture Choice C: Majority/ All Nurture Decade A: 1930s-1960s Decade B: 1970s-1990s

  13. Exploratory Data: Decade Born vs. “Nature vs. Nurture” • 1930s-1960s: • Choice A: 40.8% • Choice B: 28.6% • Choice C: 30.6% • 1970s-1990s: • Choice A: 10.3% • Choice B: 50% • Choice C: 39.7%

  14. Exploratory Data: political Affiliation vs. “nature vs. Nurture” Choice A: Majority/All Nature Choice B: 50/50 Nature/Nurture Choice C: Majority/ All Nurture D: Democrat O: Other R: Republican

  15. Exploratory Data: political Affiliation vs. “nature vs. Nurture” • Democrats: • Choice A: 26.3% • Choice B: 39.5% • Choice C: 34.2% • Republicans: • Choice A: 10.3% • Choice B: 50% • Choice C: 39.7% • Other • Choice A: 33.3% • Choice B: 36.7% • Choice C: 30%

  16. Exploratory data: Siblings vs. “nature vs. Nurture” Choice A: Majority/All Nature Choice B: 50/50 Nature/Nurture Choice C: Majority/ All Nurture Sibling Choice A: 0-2 Siblings Sibling Choice B: 3+ Siblings

  17. Exploratory data: Siblings vs. “nature vs. Nurture” • -0 to 2 Siblings: • -Choice A: 10.8% • Choice B: 52.3% • Choice C: 36.9% • -3+ Siblings • Choice A: 45.2% • Choice B: 21.4% • Choice C: 33.3%

  18. Sample Population 54.2% 55.1% 44.9% 45.8% 35.5% 60.7% 36.5% 28% 39.3%

  19. Conclusions About population • Political affiliation and gender do not effect an individual’s opinions on Nature vs. Nurture in our community • Decade born and number of siblings DO effect an individual’s opinion on Nature vs. Nurture • Individuals born from 1930s-1960s more likely to believe that NATURE is a larger factor • Individuals born from 1970s-1990s more likely to believe that Nature and Nurture play equal roles or that NURTURE is a larger factor • Individuals with 3+ siblings are more likely to believe that NATURE is a larger factor

  20. Inferential Analysis

  21. X²Test of independence: Gender and “Nature Vs. Nurture” • Conditions • 1) Categorical Data--- Gender is categorical • 2) SRS--- Yes, systematic sampling of random population • 3) All expected counts ≥5--- Yes they are • Ho: No association exists between Gender and NvN • Ha: Association exists between Gender and NvN

  22. X²Test of independence: Gender and “Nature Vs. Nurture” DF= 2 P(X²>1.237)= .54 -We fail to reject Ho because P-value .54 > α= .05. -We have sufficient evidence that there is no association between gender and opinion on Nature vs. Nurture

  23. X²Test of independence: Decade born and “Nature Vs. Nurture” • Conditions • 1) Categorical Data--- Decade Born is categorical • 2) SRS--- Yes, systematic sampling of random population • 3) All expected counts ≥5--- Yes they are • Ho: No association exists between decade born and NvN • Ha: Association exists between decade born and NvN

  24. X²Test of independence: Decade born and “Nature Vs. Nurture” DF=2 P(X²>13.8)= .001 -We reject Ho because P-value .001< α=.005 - We have sufficient evidence that an association exists between decade born and opinion on Nature vs. Nurture

  25. X²Test of independence: Political Affiliation and “Nature Vs. Nurture” • Conditions • 1) Categorical Data-Political Affiliation is categorical • 2) SRS--- Yes, systematic sampling of random population • 3) All expected counts ≥5--- Yes they are • Ho: No association exists between political affiliation and NvN • Ha: Association exists between political affiliation and NvN

  26. X²Test of independence: Political Affiliation and “Nature Vs. Nurture” DF=4 P(X²>3.165) = .53 - We fail to reject Ho because P-value .53> α= .005 -We have sufficient evidence that there is no association between political affiliation and opinion on Nature vs. Nurture

  27. X²Test of independence: Number of Siblings and “Nature Vs. Nurture” • Conditions • 1) Categorical Number of siblings (in this case) is categorical • 2) SRS--- Yes, systematic sampling of random population • 3) All expected counts ≥5--- Yes they are • Ho: No association exists between number of siblings and NvN • Ha: Association exists between number of siblings and NvN

  28. X²Test of independence: Number of Siblings and “Nature Vs. Nurture” • DF= 2 P(X²>18.62)= .0001 • We reject Ho because P-value .0001 < α= .005 • We have sufficient evidence that an association exists between number of siblings and opinion on Nature vs. Nurture

  29. Application to population • From the findings of the X² Tests of Independence, we can conclude that in our population: • No association exists between one’s opinion on Nature vs. Nurture and gender • No association exists between one’s opinion on Nature vs. Nurture and political affiliation • An association exists between one’s opinion on Nature vs. Nurture and the decade in which one was born • An association exists between one’s opinion on Nature vs. Nurture and the number of siblings one has

  30. Bias/Error • One visit to Valley Square not fully representative of population • Multiple visits in other public places could be yield more accurate results • Parents with young children disregarded • Perhaps parents with young children have particular opinions on Nature vs. Nurture • Personal error • Only one person asked for volunteers • Intimidation factor- 3 observers approaching one subject • Bias in wording or survey • Response bias in survey

  31. Personal Opinions • Surprised with association between siblings and opinions on Nature vs. Nurture • We thought that the association would be the reverse of what it turned out to be • Not surprised with association between decade born and opinions on Nature vs. Nurture • Opinions are more progressive as time progresses- who you are is not solely determined by your genes • Not surprised with no associations between political affiliation/ gender and Nature vs. Nurture