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Histories make men wise ―GISystem 与 GIScience 给我们的启示 PowerPoint Presentation
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Histories make men wise ―GISystem 与 GIScience 给我们的启示

Histories make men wise ―GISystem 与 GIScience 给我们的启示

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Histories make men wise ―GISystem 与 GIScience 给我们的启示

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  1. Histories make men wise ―GISystem与GIScience 给我们的启示 朱 庆 测绘遥感信息工程国家重点实验室(武汉大学) URL: http://vrlab.whu.edu.cn E-mail: zhuq66@263.net

  2. “…历史能告诉我们种种不可能,给每个人在时空坐标中点出那让人清醒又令人沮丧的一点。不知天高地厚的少年英气是以尚未悟得历史定位为前提的……”“…历史能告诉我们种种不可能,给每个人在时空坐标中点出那让人清醒又令人沮丧的一点。不知天高地厚的少年英气是以尚未悟得历史定位为前提的……” 余秋雨《文化苦旅》 The only new thing in the world is the history you don't know !

  3. 主要内容 • GISystem的发展 • GIService面临的问题 • GIScience的凸显 • 虚拟地理环境概念

  4. Need better ways to represent, understand, manage, and communicate our natural world Emerging Technologies for Enterprise GIS Jack Dangermond, 3 Dec. 2003 HK

  5. data - information - knowledge Exploration, Explanation, Prediction, Planning Prof. Christophe Claramunt 10 Feb. 2004 CUHK

  6. Nature, 427:376-377 January 22, 2004 Geotechnologyidentified as "one of the three most important emerging and evolving fields," along with Nanotechnology and Biotechnology.

  7. What is GISystem?

  8. Geographic Information System (GIS) is an information system able to encode, store, transform, analyze, and display geospatial information http://www.asprs.org/society.html Geographic information system (GIS) is a system for input, storage, manipulation, and output of geographic information NCGIA Core Curriculum in Geographic Information Science Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system of computer software, hardware and data, and personnel to help manipulate, analyze and present information that is tied to a spatial location- http://www.gis.com/whatisgis/ Data-centered

  9. Professional GISThe distinctive features of professional GIS include data collection and editing, database administration, advanced geoprocessing and analysis, and other specialist tools, such as ESRI ArcInfo, Samllworld GIS • Desktop GISDesktop GIS focus on data use, rather than data creation, and provide excellent tools for making maps, reports, and charts. Well-know examples include ESRI ArcView, Intergraph GeoMedia, MapInfor professional, Clark Lab's Idrisi • Hand-held GISHand-held GIS are lightweight systems designed for mobile and field use, such as Autodesk Onsite, ESRI ArcPad, and Smallworld Scout. • Component GISComponent GIS are tool kits and used by knowledgeable programmers to create focused applications. Examples include Blue Marble Geographic GeoObjects, and MapInfo MapX. • GIS viewerGIS viewer are able to display and query popular file formats, such as ESRI ArcExplorer, Intergraph's GeoMedia, and MapInfo's ProViewer • Internet GISInternet GIS focus on display and query applications, as well as maping. Examples include Autodestk MapGuide, ESRI ArcIMS, Intergraph GeoMedia Web Map, and MapInfo MapXtreme. Geographic Information Systems and Science Longley, Goodchild , et al 2001

  10. In 1966, the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) was initiated to serve the needs of the Canada Land Inventory to map current land uses and the capability of these areas for agriculture, forestry, wildlife and recreation. Roger Tomlinson had recognized some years earlier that the manual map analysis tasks necessary for such an inventory over such a large area would be prohibitively expensive and that a technological solution was necessary. Within this solution came a number of key developments: optical scanning of maps, raster to vector conversion, a spatial database management system and a seamless coverage spatially partitioned into ‘tiles’. The system was not fully operational until 1971 but has subsequently grown to become a digital archive of some 10,000 maps. Roger Tomlinson the Father of GIS • Technological innovations: • no previous experience in how to structure data internally • no precedent for GIS operations of overlay, area measurement • experimental scanner had to be built for map input

  11. Year GIS Context A timeline illustrating developments in GIS in relation to background 1963 Canada Geographic Information System 1964 Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics & Spatial Analysis 1966 SYMAP WGS-66 1967 US Bureau of Census DIME 1968 Relational database defined by Codd 1969 ESRI founded; Intergraph founded; Laser-Scan founded 1970 Acronym GIS born at IGU/UNESCO conference 1971 ERT/Lansat 1 launched 1973 UK Ordnance Survey starts digitizing 1974 AutoCarto conference series; Computers & Geosciences UNIX 1975 C++ 1978 ERDAS founded 1980 FEMA integrates USGS 1:2m mapping into seamless database 1981 Computers, Environment & Urban Systems; Arc/Info launched 1982 IBM PC 8088 chip 1984 1st Spatial Data Handling Symposium RISC chip, WGS-84 1985 GPS operational 1986 Burrough’s Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment; MapInfo founded SPOT 1 launched 1987 International Journal of Geographical Information Systems; GIS/LIS conference series 80386 chip 1988 NCGIA; GIS World, UK RRL initiative 1989 UK Association for Geographic Information 1990 WWW 1991 USGS digital topo series complete. 1st International Symposium on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modelling 1993 GIS research UK conference series Pentium chip 1994 Open GIS Consortium HTML 1995 Java 1996 1st International Conference on GeoComputation; Transactions in GIS 1997 IJGIS changes ‘System’ to ‘Science’; last AutoCarto; Geographical and Environmental Modelling 1998 Journal of Geographical Systems; last GIS/LIS

  12. One of the biggest shifts in focus came when we introduced ArcInfo in 1982. Prior to that time we were basically doing various GIS projects using our own in-house software tools. With the release of a strong product, we began to leverage all of our project experience into a product that would help other organisations do what we did in our project efforts. This changed everything. go from a services company to a product company! Jack Dangermond president and founder, ESRI

  13. What can we do with GIS alone? The GISystem needs to disappear from sight, to become embedded in task-specific systems! to GIService miniature, mobile, public, person-centered…… 为什么四个不一致(语义、尺度、时态、格式)问题日益突出?

  14. Because progress has historically relied on a fragmented gathering of approaches inherited from cartography, imposed by hardware, or borrowed from other computer-related fields, we are faced with the current situation in which increased functionality has characteristically been accompanied by increased conceptual complexity, making GIS progressively more nonintuitive for the user. Representations of space and time Donna J. Peuquet, 2002

  15. 科学 更安全、更舒适、更快、更远 1903年12月17日,Wright 兄弟 第一次动力飞行120 英尺、持续时间12秒

  16. GISystem的进一步发展与腾飞需要新的科学研究成果作为“源动力”!GISystem的进一步发展与腾飞需要新的科学研究成果作为“源动力”! What is GIScience?

  17. The GIS and Society meeting prompted the change from geographic information "systems" to "science." Professor Michael Goodchild at the University of California--Santa Barbara is acknowledged as the progenitor of this switch. In July of 1990, Michael F. Goodchild made a keynote address about GIS-related research priorities to the Spatial Data Handling conference in Zurich, Switzerland, the fourth conference under that title. Goodchild’s talk was entitled “Spatial Information Science.” The address was subsequently published in the International Journal of Geographic information Science (IJGIS) under the modified title “Geographic Information Science” Michael F. Goodchild NCGIA: GIScience

  18. 基本的科学问题 • What is geographic information? • What fundamental principles are associated with geographic information? • How can geographic information be represented? • How does geographic information represent the world? • How can geographic information be quantified, and what metrics of geographic information measure its volume? • How can geographic information be communicated? • What are the fundamental human-computer interaction issues associated with geographic information?

  19. The idea that there might be an academic field of study, a science, behind GIS software technology, came in the 1980s ! 1988, the U.S. National Science Foundation established the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), a consortium of three institutions dedicated to basic research and education in geographic information science and its related technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS): the University of California at Santa Barbara, the State University of New York at Buffalo, and the University of Maine. • the five bullets of NSF for NCGIA: • Spatial analysis and spatial statistics; • Spatial relations and database structure; • Artificial intelligence and expert systems; • Visualization; • Social, economic, and institutional issues. http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/

  20. “the content of geographic information science”, under the following eight headings : • Data collection and measurement • discretization: generalization, abstraction, approximation. GPS, map, or remote sensing? • Data capture • Spatial statistics • Data modeling and theories of spatial data • Data structures, algorithms and processes • Display • Analytical tools • Institutional, managerial and ethical issues M.F. Goodchild, Geographical information science, IJGIS 6(1):31-45, 1992

  21. The University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) . A founding meeting in Boulder, Colorado, in December 1994 : The University Consortium for Geographic Information Science is dedicated to the development and use of theories, methods, technology, and data for understanding geographic processes, relationships, and patterns. The transformation of geographic data into useful information is central to geographic information science. www.ucgis.org

  22. Multidisciplinary Scope of the UCGIS To emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of GIS and the need for balance and cooperation among the disciplines listed below (and others): • CARTOGRAPHY • COGNITIVE SCIENCE • COMPUTER SCIENCE • ENGINEERING and LAND SURVEYING • ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES • GEODETIC SCIENCE • GEOGRAPHY • LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE • LAW and PUBLIC POLICY • REMOTE SENSING and PHOTOGRAMMETRY • STATISTICS http://www.ucgis.org/

  23. In Jun 1996, UCGIS delegates met to determine research priorities for the new organization, and at the end of the meeting endorsed 10 research priorities 1.         Spatial Data Acquisition and Integration 2.         Distributed Computing 3.         Extensions to Geographic Representation 4.         Cognition of Geographic Information 5.         Interoperability of Geographic Information 6.         Scale 7.         Spatial Analysis in a GIS Environment 8.         The future of the Spatial Information Infrastructure 9.         Uncertainty in Spatial Data and GIS-based Analysis 10.     GIS and Society

  24. Geographic information science • is the science behind the technology • considers fundamental questions raised by the use of systems and technologies • is the science needed to keep technology at the cuttingedge(最前沿) • NCGIA Core Curriculum in Geographic Information Science (1997) • http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/giscc/units/u002/

  25. “Geographic Information Science (GIScience) is the basic research field that seeks to redefine geographic concepts and their use in the context of geographic information systems. GIScience also examines the impacts of GIS on individuals and society, and the influences of society on GIS. GIScience re-examines some of the most fundamental themes in traditional spatially oriented field such as geography, cartography, and geodesy, while incorporating more recent developments in cognitive and information science. It also overlaps with and draws from more psychology, and contributes to progress in those fields. It supports research in political science and anthropology, and draws on those fields in studies of geographic information and society.” 1999 , workshop held by National Science Foundation

  26. Geographic information science: defining the field David M. Mark, Department of Geography, university of Buffalo Foundations of Geographic information science Edited by Matt Duckham, Michael F. Goodchild and Michael F. Worboys Taylor & Francis, London,2003 Ontology and representation Ontology of the geographic domain provide a consistent formal theory of tokens (instances) and types (kinds) in the real world, their relationships, and the processes that modify them(GIScience 2004接受的25篇论文之6) Formal representation of geographic information finding digital formalisms that can capture the essence of geographic phenomena

  27. Computation Qualitative spatial reasoning Computational geometry Efficient indexing, retrieval, and search in geographic databases Spatial statistics

  28. Other geocomputation topics • data mining and knowledge discover • Heuristics • fuzzy computation • Fractals • neural networks • artificial intelligence • artificial immune system • genetic algorithms • cellular automata • ant algorithms • parallel computing • grid computing

  29. Cognition Cognitive models of geographic phenomena (human perception, learning, memory, reasoning and communication of and about geographic phenomena) Human interaction with geographic information and technology Applications, institutions, and society Acquisition of geographic data --- Geomatics Quality of geographic information Spatial analysis Geographic information, institutions, and society Crosscutting research themes Time Scale

  30. http://www.uel.ac.uk/geo-information/ Geo-Information Science: Concerns generic issues in the handling and analysis of geo-spatial data such as data structures, visualisation, spatial data analysis, spatial data quality and the propagation of uncertainty. Geo-Information Systems:Concerns the use of specialist software in mapping and data mining applications in such diverse areas as the environment, crime, health, education, transport and business. Geo-Information Engineering:Concerns the design and construction of specific spatial information solutions such as in predictive modelling, spatial decision support and location-based services.

  31. Batty et al, 2002  a time line for the development of virtual built environments

  32. 1999年北京“Toward Digital Earth”国际会议 “Virtual Geographic Environments: concepts, design and application” 2001年,“Exploring Virtual Geographic Environments”, Geographic Information Science International Advanced Workshop on Virtual Geographic Environments and Geocollaboration, 15-16 Decmber, 2003 The Chinese University of HongKong 林珲教授 Virtual Geographic Environments

  33. Natural interaction and multi-users geocollaboration Knowledge explanation prediction planning Social space Multimodal spatial perception Sensory/perceptual space Information selection arrangement representation 1D text and voice,2D image,3D stereo,4D animation Multidimensional presentation space Data Collection organization management Meta data graph others model attribute image Computer network space Geographic data space S D v P r o C u r 8 0 0 0 H P J 4 1 1 0 A 虚拟地理环境的体系结构

  34. VGE当前的热点研究领域 • 多维表示:空间、专题、时间 • 自然交互:写画、说、手势等 • 多感知:视觉、听觉、触觉等 • 地理协同:多用户共享分布式的环境 • 移动增强现实:分布式传感器

  35. People propose, thought Science studies, discovery Technology Conforms , innovation person-centered motto for the 21st century Donald A. Norman, 1993 cognitive psychologist

  36. Let’s Collaborate in the Virtual Geographic Environment

  37. 谢谢大家