Building Fire Safety Stanford University Fire Marshal’s Office Dept. of Environmental Health and Safety
Course Contents • Fire Prevention • Electrical Safety • Evacuation Procedures • Fire Extinguisher Basic Training
Fire Prevention • Flammable and combustible liquid storage shall be in approved storage cabinets. Quantities not exceeding 10 gallons may be stored outside of a cabinet. • California Fire Code 7902.5.8
FLAMMABLE KEEP FIRE AWAY Fire Prevention, cont. • Cabinets shall be provided with a conspicuous label in red letters on contrasting background stating: CFC 7902.5.9.3.1
Fire Prevention, cont. • Do not use hot plates to heat flammable solvents • Curtains surrounding laser equipment should be fire-retardant. • Work areas should be kept clean and free from obstructions.
Fire Prevention, cont. • Do not store incompatible materials within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure. CFC 8001.11.8 • When processes or conditions exist where a flammable mixture could be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge. CFC 8001.11.5
Fire Prevention, cont. • Do not block access to lab/office exits, emergency equipment and controls. • Labs in excess of 200 sq. feet which contain hazardous materials are required to have two exits. CBC 304.2.2.1
Fire Prevention, cont. • Maintain a minimum of an 18-inch clearance between storage tops and ceiling sprinkler deflectors. NFPA 13 • Use the proper type of fire extinguishers for metal fires. Met-L-X fire extinguishers should be used on fires involving metal or metal hydrides.
Fire Prevention, cont. • Exercise extreme caution with open flame and spark-producing work. Keep combustibles at a safe distance away. • Corridors and stairways shall not be used for storage. Title 19, Section 3.11
Most Frequent Causes of Fire on College Campuses • Arson • Electricity • Smoking • Cutting/Welding
Electrical Safety • Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days for holiday decorative lighting, carnivals and similar purposes and for experimental or developmental work.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Electrical wiring, devices, appliance and other equipment which are modified or damaged and constitute an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring • Extension cords shall only be used with portable appliances while such appliances are in immediate use.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multi-plug adapter. • The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
Electrical Safety, cont. • The extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deteriorations or damage. • Extension cords shall be grounded when serving grounded portable appliances.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Extension cords and flexible cords shall NOT be: • affixed to structures; • extended through walls, ceilings, or floors; • under doors or floor coverings; or • subjected to environmental or physical damage.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Multi-plug adapters, such as multi-plug extension cords, cube adapters, strip plugs and other devices, that do not comply with Article 85 of Part 9, Title 24 CCR or the National Electric Code shall not be used.
Electrical Safety, cont. • Power taps shall be polarized or of the grounded type and shall be listed with the Underwriters Laboratories (U.L.)
Electrical Safety, cont. • Power tap shall be connected to a permanently installed receptacle. • Work space around switchboards and panelboards shall be provided and maintained as required by the National Electric Code. Such space shall not be used for storage.
Electrical Safety, cont. • A clear and unobstructed means of access with a minimum width of 30 inches and minimum height of 78 inches shall be maintained from the operating face of the switchboard or panelboard to an aisle or corridor.
DANGER ELECTRICAL ROOM Electrical Safety, cont. • Doors to electrical control rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating “ELECTRICAL ROOM” or similar approved wording.
Electrical Safety, cont. • The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicated its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident.
Evacuation Procedures Confinement • This is the most important concept in fire safety. An interior fire produces extreme temperatures and deadly smoke. The interior fire's only weakness is its susceptibility to confinement. • If you discover a fire in a room: • Close the door to the room as you exit. • Close all doors in the immediate area, if possible.
Evacuation Procedures, cont. Report the Fire • Reporting a fire in your building can best be accomplished by: • Pull the nearest interior fire alarm pull station. • Call the Fire Department emergency telephone number • 9-911 on Stanford University telephones • 911 on telephones with Palo Alto prefixes.
Evacuation Procedures, cont. Evacuation • Evacuation from the area of the fire to a safe location is of primary importance in the management of a fire emergency. • If the fire is in your area or if the fire alarm sounds, leave the building in an orderly manner and assemble at a predetermined Emergency Assembly Point (EAP) located a safe distance from the building.
Evacuation Procedures, cont. Fighting the Fire • This is best accomplished by confining the fire by closing doors. However, a portable fire extinguisher may be used if: • The fire is small • You have been trained to use a portable fire extinguisher
NOTE Heroic efforts by persons fighting fires have resulted in fatalities when confinement, reporting and evacuation procedures were neglected. Remember, the emphasis on protecting lives and property by Confinement, Reporting and Evacuation
Fire Extinguisher Basic Training Air Fuel Heat
Fire ExtinguisherBasic Training • Types of Fires • Class A - Ordinary combustible materials • Class B- Flammable liquids • Class C - Electrical • Class D – Metals • Class K – Cooking Appliance with combustible cooking media (vegetable or animals oils and fats).
Types of Fire Extinguishers • Water • Carbon Dioxide • Dry Chemical • Halon 1211 /Cleanguard • Dry Powder • Wet Chemical
Types of Fires and Proper Fire Extinguishers • Class A - Ordinary combustible materials • Water • Multipurpose Dry Chemical (ABC Rated) • Halon 1221/Cleanguard • Class B - Flammable liquids • Multipurpose Dry Chemical (ABC Rated) • Carbon Dioxide • Halon 1221/Cleanguard
Types of Fires and Proper Fire Extinguishers • Class C - Electrical • Multipurpose Dry Chemical (ABC Rated) • Carbon Dioxide • Halon 1221/Cleanguard • Class D - Metals - Dry Powder • Class K - Cooking Appliances • Wet Chemical
In Case of Fire DODON’T Keep Calm Panic Report the fire by calling 9-911 Assume the fire has been reported and pulling nearest fire alarm Advise other employees Try to quickly gather belongings Use nearest stairwell Use elevator Close doors and windows Break windows Keep low, under the smoke Run through smoke-filled areas Use an extinguisher on a small fire Use an extinguisher on a large fire Go to the Emergency Assembly Point Become a "Spectator" once outside Direct firefighters to emergency Go back inside the building
SafetyMust be Practiced Always! Don’t take shortcuts or chances!