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Carbon Cycle

Carbon Cycle

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Carbon Cycle

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  1. Carbon Cycle Chapter 5-Section 2: p. 132, also p. 125 & 128

  2. Reservoirs of Carbon Forms of carbon stores or storage places

  3. Reservoirs of Carbon Where is carbon? • The major reservoir (storage) of carbon is carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere

  4. Reservoirs of Carbon Where is carbon? Other reservoirs: • Organic matter (makes up living things): proteins, fats, carbohydrates • Fossil fuels (buried remains of organisms)

  5. Processes of Carbon How carbon is transformed & cycled through an ecosystem

  6. Processes of Carbon Important processes that cycle carbon into living organisms: • Photosynthesis • Heterotrophy (food chain)

  7. Processes of Carbon Photosynthesis • Autotrophs use photosynthesis to convert light energy (sun) into chemical energy (sugar; glucose)

  8. Processes of Carbon The Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis is… 6CO2 + 6H2O + light  C6H12O6+ 6O2 Note: What molecules of carbon are shown above?

  9. Don’t forget, autotrophs… • Include plants, algae, bacteria • Contain chlorophyll (pigment to absorb light) • Are producers • Form the base of ecological pyramids

  10. Processes of Carbon Heterotrophy • As organisms consume food, energy travels from one organism to another • So does carbon, but it’s transformed (changes form) again • Heterotrophs have less energy available to them from autotrophs

  11. Processes of Carbon Processes that cycle carbon out ofliving organisms: • Respiration • Burning fossil fuels • Decay & decomposition Click here to view animation

  12. Processes of Carbon Respiration (cellular) • Chemical reaction to break down carbohydrates • It’s how organisms get energy out of the sugars • ALL ORGANISMS RESPIRE!!! (plants too)

  13. Processes of Carbon The Chemical Equation for Respiration is… C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (ATP is an energy molecule) Note: What molecules of carbon are shown above?

  14. Processes of Carbon Short-term • Photosynthesis & respiration Long-term (always think the “rock cycle”) • Carbon found in bones and shells for limestone rocks • Deposits of coal, oil and natural gas (fossil fuels)

  15. Molecules of Carbon Forms of carbon (compounds, molecules, atoms)

  16. Molecules of Carbon In the atmosphere • Carbon dioxide (CO2) In living things • Glucose (C6H12O6) or sugar/carbohydrates, fats, proteins Underground • Rocks (limestone) and fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, natural gas

  17. Nitrogen Cycle Chapter 5-Section 2: p. 134

  18. Reservoirs of Nitrogen Where is nitrogen found? • The major reservoir of nitrogen is the atmosphere as nitrogen gas (N2)

  19. Reservoirs of Nitrogen Where is nitrogen found? Other reservoirs: • In the ground as nitrates (fertilizers) • In proteins that make up organisms

  20. Processes of Nitrogen How nitrogen is transformed & cycled through an ecosystem

  21. Processes of Nitrogen Important processes that cycle nitrogen into living organisms: • Nitrogen fixation • Absorption • Heterotrophy (food chain)

  22. Processes of Nitrogen Nitrogen Fixation • Bacteria that live on roots of legumes (bean plants like soybean or clover) convert atmospheric N2 to a “fixed” form that plants can absorb • I.e. it makes fertilizer

  23. Processes of Nitrogen Heterotrophy • Plants absorb “fixed” nitrogen from the soil (fertilizer) • As organisms consume food, nitrogen travels from one organism to another is used to make proteins

  24. Processes of Nitrogen Processes that cycle nitrogen out ofliving organisms: • Excretion • Decomposition • Denitrification Click here to view animation

  25. Processes of Nitrogen Excretion • Animals release nitrogenous wastes in the form of urine or dung • Also known as ‘ammonification’

  26. Processes of Nitrogen Decomposition • Bacteria, insects, fungi break down wastes and decaying plants and animals • Release Nitrogen back into the soil

  27. Processes of Nitrogen Denitrification • Bacteria transform a small amount into nitrogen gas, which returns to the atmosphere

  28. Processes of Nitrogen Short-term • Fixation, absorption & decomposition

  29. Molecules of Nitrogen Forms of nitrogen

  30. Molecules of Nitrogen In the atmosphere • Nitrogen gas (N2) In living things • Proteins Underground • Ammonium nitrates (fertilizers)

  31. Phosphorus Cycle Chapter 5-Section 2: p. 135

  32. Reservoirs of Phosphorus Forms of phorphorus stores or storage places

  33. Reservoirs of Phosphorus Where is phosphorus found? • The major reservoir of phosphorus is in salts & rock sediment • Other reservoirs include waterways (washed from eroded rocks and emptied in oceans)

  34. Processes of Phosphorus How phosphorus is transformed & cycled

  35. Processes of Phosphorus How phosphorus cycles into living organisms: • Erosion of rocks • Absorption • Heterotrophy (food chain)

  36. Processes of Phosphorus Erosion • Small amounts of phosphorus dissolve in soil and water

  37. Processes of Phosphorus Heterotrophy • Plants absorb phosphates from the soil • As organisms consume food, phosphorus travels from one organism to another and is used to make bones and teeth

  38. Processes of Phosphorus How phosphorus cycles out of living organisms: • Excretion • Decomposition Click here to view animation (narrated choice available)

  39. Processes of Phosphorus Short-term • Absorption & decomposition Long-term (always think the “rock cycle”) • Phosphorus cycle mainly involves reserves underground and on the bottom of the ocean

  40. Molecules of Phosphorus Forms of phosphorus (compounds, molecules, atoms)

  41. Molecules of Phosphorus In living things • Cells of living things, bones, teeth and DNA Underground • Rocks (limestone) and ocean sediment (phosphates)

  42. Key Points • Carbon makes up the basis for all organic life • Most nitrogen is unusable in the atmosphere; we all depend on bacteria to “fix” it for us • Phosphorus does not cycle through the atmosphere • Long-term part of each cycle includes forming and eroding rock; whereas the short-term part of each cycle is the movement between living things

  43. Humans Affects Chapter 5-Section 2: p. 133, 136

  44. How humans affect cycles Carbon cycle • By burning fossil fuels we release carbon into the atmosphere (about ½ remains in the atmosphere) Phophorus & Nitrogen cycles • Excessive amounts of fertilizer can cause too much algae growth, which use up oxygen • Nitric oxides are released when fossils fuels are burned and mix with water vapor to form acid rain