What is MEAT? • Meat is the edible portion of mammals. The major meat producing animals are: • CATTLE • SWINE • SHEEP
Nutrients found in MEAT • Protein- • Essential for tissue building and repair • IRON • Other Minerals
BEEF • Comes from mature cattle (over 12 months of age) • Has a distinct flavor and firm texture • Usually bright red in color with creamy, white fat • This color indicates that it is SAFE to eat
Ground Beef vs. Hamburger • Ground beef and hamburger are not the same thing! • Ground beef has ONLY the fat originally attached to the meat before grinding. • Hamburger can have extra fat added to it during grinding.
PORK • The meat of swine • Comes from animals that are 7-12 months of age • Because the animals are so young, most pork is very TENDER!
VARIETY MEATS • The edible parts of the animal OTHER than the muscles • Usually inexpensive • Rich source of vitamins and minerals • Ex: liver, heart, kidney, tongue of beef, veal, lamb, and swine
INSPECTION of Meat • Federal inspectors must examine all meat and meat products shipped across lines. • Inspect both live animals and carcasses • Quality grades for meat are based on four factors: • Marbling • Maturity • Texture • Appearance
What is MARBLING? • Refers to the flecks of fat through the lean • Cuts with more marbling are: • Juicy • Flavorful • Tender • Likely to receive higher quality grades
Location of Meat in the Animal • Bone shape can tell you the part of the animal from which meat was cut. • The location of the meat indicates TENDERNESS. • Muscles receiving little exercise are the most tender.
TENDERNESS The tenderness of a meat gives you a clue about how to cook it! • TENDER: • Cook by dry heat methods: broiling, roasting • Can be identified by a T-bone, rib bone, flat bone, or wedge bone • LESS TENDER: • Can be cooked by moist heat methods: stewing, braising
How much meat should you buy? • Depends on: • # of people you are serving • How much fat, gristle, and bone are in the meat
STORING Meat • Store in the COLDEST part of the refrigerator! • Use within 3-4 days- ground meats should be used within 2 days • You can freeze meat for longer storage- • If you put meats in the freezer, rewrap them in moisture-proof and vapor-proof paper.
COOKING Meats • Cooking meats destroys harmful bacteria that can be present in RAW meat. REMEMBER: The only accurate way to check meat for doneness is with a MEAT THERMOMETER! (inserted into the thickest part of the muscle)
What’s IN Meat? • Meat is made up of: • Muscle tissue • Connective tissue • Made up of two proteins: elastin and collagen • Elastin is very tough and elastic, so it should be pounded or ground to break it up. • Commercial tenderizers can break down collagen • Fat