What is Ecology? Chapter 3.1 & 3.2
Ecology • Study of INTERACTIONS among: • Organisms • Organisms and their surroundings
Biosphere • Largest “ecology” • Contains all life on Earth. • A web of connections
Levels of Organization • Species = group of organisms that are similar, can breed, and produce FERTILE OFFSPRING • Populations = groups of individuals that are part of same species & live in same area
Levels of Organization 3. Communities = groups of different populations 4. Ecosystem = different organisms + their environment 5. Biome = group of ecosystems that have similar climates
Abiotic vs Biotic Abiotic = non living things in ecosystem Ex: water, light Biotic = living things in ecosystem Ex: plants, species
PRACTICE The picture represents individual animals that can breed and produce fertile offspring with each other. These are called a _______________.
PRACTICE A group of individuals from the same species is called a ______________.
PRACTICE Groups of populations living together is called a __________________.
PRACTICE Groups of populations and their environment is a ______________________________.
PRACTICE Groups of similar ecosystems are _________.
PRACTICE 1. Can a biome near the equator be the same as a biome in Northern Canada? Explain. 2. Can a group of rabbits and a group of mice make up the same POPULATION? Explain. 3. Can a rabbit and a moose be part of the same SPECIES? Explain.
PRACTICE • Write definitions for: Species abiotic Population biotic Community ecosystem biome 2. Draw examples for each definition 3. Color your pictures
Ecological Methods Observing – observe species, populations, ecosystems Experimenting – experiment to test hypothesis Modeling – use models to test complex theories
Energy Flow Do YOU need energy? What do you need energy to do?
Energy Flow Do animals or plants need ENERGY? Where does our energy come from?
The Sun SUNLIGHT! The main source of energy for life Only use 1%
Producers Also called AUTOTROPHS Use energy from SUN to make food PRODUCERS Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O glucose Some use chemical energy to make food Chemosynthesis
Consumers Herbivores (eat plants) Also called HETEROTROPHS Omnivores (eat everything) CONSUMERS Decomposers (decompose everything) Carnivores (eat meat) Detritivores (eat decomposing plants)
Feeding Relationships Energy moves in ONE DIRECTION: Sun autotrophs heterotrophs
Food Chains • Series of steps where energy is transferred by organisms through eating or being eaten. Ex: grass (producer) deer (consumer) wolf (carnivore)
Food Webs • Links all food chains together Trophic Levels: • Each step in a food web • Producers make up 1st trophic level • Consumers make up 2nd, 3rd, higher levels • Each level depends on the one below it for energy
PRACTICE You will EACH draw out a food web that connects at least 5 different food chains. Your food web must include: • A specific biome (ex: marine, grassland, forest) • 1 producer • Primary consumer • Secondary consumer • Decomposer • Label consumers as herbivores/carnivores/omnivores
Ecological Pyramid • Shows amounts of energy or matter in a food web
Energy Pyramid • Shows how much energy passes from one trophic level to the next • Only 10% of energy is transferred from level to level
Biomass Pyramid • Total amount of living tissue • Shows amount of potential food available
Number Pyramid • Shows number of individual organisms in ecosystem
PRACTICE 10,000 cal of energy