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Engineering History

Engineering History. When did engineering begin? Who were the first engineers? What were the first engineering designs?. The Beginnings of Engineering: 6000 - 3000 B.C. Probably occurred in Asia Minor or Africa 8000 years ago Change from nomadic life (hunter - gatherers)

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Engineering History

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  1. EngineeringHistory

  2. When did engineering begin? Who were the first engineers? What were the first engineering designs?

  3. The Beginnings of Engineering: 6000 - 3000 B.C. Probably occurred in Asia Minor or Africa 8000 years ago Change from nomadic life (hunter - gatherers) The Agrarian Society (agriculture) forms the basis of civilization cultivate plants - the need for increased food production domesticate animals - for food and work build permanent houses in community group

  4. The Beginnings of Engineering:6000 - 3000 B.C. Increased food production permitted time to engage in other activities such as: Rulers - to stabilize community life land ownership - to complete work - organize work force - beginnings of a class society supervisors foremen workers - artisans Artisans - considered to be the first engineers

  5. The Beginnings of Engineering:6000 - 3000 B.C. Early Achievements in this Era Methods of producing fire at will Melting certain rocklike materials to produce copper and bronze tools Development of a system of symbols for written communications

  6. The Beginning of Engineering:6000 - 3000 B.C. Major Engineering Projects or Inventions Irrigation systems to promote crop growth Animal-, water-, and wind-driven gristmills The wheel and axle Plow Yoke

  7. The Beginning of Engineering:6000 - 3000 B.C. Mesopotamia “cradle of civilization” Clay tile material used for permanent documentation Clay tablets unearthed which show: maps of caravan routes including mountains, cities and water city plans irrigation systems water supply systems road maps (networks)

  8. The Beginning of Engineering:6000 - 3000 B.C. • Outstanding contributions of mathematics • Sexagesimal system • divided circle into 360 degrees • hour into 60 minutes • minute into 60 seconds

  9. Engineering in Early Civilizations:3000 -600 B.C. Babylonian engineers: Familiar with basic arithmetic and algebra computing areas and volumes of land excavations Number system based on 60 instead of 10 Buildings were constructed using basic engineering principles still used today Primitive arches used in hydraulic works Bridges were built with stone piers carrying wooden stringers Roads were surfaced with a naturally occurring asphalt, a construction system not used again until the nineteenth century

  10. Engineering in Early Civilizations:3000 -600 B.C. Egyptian Engineers Pyramid Age - 2900 B.C and lasts 1000 years 2,300,000 building stones (2.5 tons each) used to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops Outstanding examples of engineering skills in land measurement and building layout -transit and level Irrigation systems

  11. Science of the Greeks and Romans: 600 B.C. - 400 A.D. Engineering in Greece: Had its origin in Egypt Better known for the intensive development of borrowed ideas than for creativity and invention Famous for outstanding philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle (physical scientist) and Archimedes (mathematics)

  12. Science of the Greeks and Romans: 600 B.C. - 400 A.D. Engineering in Greece: Use of ideas was retarded because of the belief that verification and experimentation, which required manual labor, were only fit for slaves. Archimedes water screw Crossbow Catapult

  13. Science of the Greeks and Romans: 600 B.C. - 400 A.D. Roman Engineering Liberally borrowed scientific and engineering knowledge from the conquered countries for use in warfare and in their public works Superior in the application of ideas and techniques Hero’s Inventions: Gear driven odometer on chariot Steam turbine Hydraulic clock Fire engine

  14. Science of the Greeks and Romans: 600 B.C. - 400 A.D. Roman Engineering Roman road systems- subbase, compact base, topcoat 180,000 miles Aqueducts for water supply Sanitary systems Engineering principles applies to military tactics

  15. Engineering in the Middle Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries Collapse of the Roman Empire 4th and 5th centuries A.D. was known as the Dark Ages, but was it? The word engineer began to appear. Its root lies in the Latin word ingeniare, “to design or devise” Animals and waterwheels began to replace humans as the power source (the growth of Christianity, an aversion to slaves as a primary source of power) Arabs were developing paper making, chemistry, and optics Sugar refining, soap making, and perfume distilling became part of the culture Chinese were developing clocks, astronomical instruments, the loom and spinning wheel, and gunpowder

  16. Engineering in the Middle Ages: 1st to 16th Centuries Johann Gutenburg - movable type produced the first books printed on paper Leonardo da Vinci - acclaimed as a great artist, was also an engineer, inventor and architect Military and civil engineering feats such as catapults bridges and buildings Sketches of future engineering devices such as: Machine Gun Helicopter Drawbridge Breach-loading Cannon Roller Bearings Universal Joint Tanks

  17. The Revival of Science:17th and 18th Centuries Galileo Discovers: Gravitational acceleration- velocity a body achieves while falling, is independent of weight Earth moves around the sun Torricelli and Pascal Discovers: hydrostatics and dynamics develop the barometer Boyle Discovers: expansion quality of air and the correlation between temperature, volume, and pressure

  18. The Revival of Science:17th and 18th Centuries Hooke Discovers: material lengthens in proportion to the force exerted on it, up to the elastic limit, and in compression it shortens in a similar fashion Huygens develops spiral watch spring and the pendulum clock and measures gravitational acceleration Newton who is famous for his three basic laws of motion developed differential calculus, essential to mathematical analysis of most physical systems

  19. The Revival of Science:17th and 18th Centuries The Developing Industrial Age James Watt - steam engine for textile mills, iron furnaces, rolling mills and other industries Hargreaves, Crampton, and Jurgen develops the spinning and weaving machinery Pieter van Musschenbroek develops a device to hold a static electrical charge, now called the leyden jar forerunner to the capacitor Luigi Galvani- principles of electrical conduction Alessandro Volta - principles of the electric battery

  20. Beginnings of Modern Science: 19th Century Andre-Marie Ampere confirms the flow of electrical current, leading to the science of electrodynamics Michael Faraday found the means to generate electricity by moving a conductor through a magnetic field Jagadis Chandra Bose demonstrated the transmission of electric signals through space; Marconi was awarded a patent for the same achievement a year later Henry Cort develops a method of refining iron James Watt refines and produces an efficient steam engine At last good iron for machines and power plants to operate the machinery

  21. 20th Century Technology Henry Ford - Builds and sells automobiles and mass production emerges Thomas Edison and Lee DeForest develop electrical equipment and electron tubes which starts the widespread use of power systems and communication networks Nikola Tesla introduces the first practical application of alternating current, the polyphase induction motor Orville & Wilbur Wright develop powered aircraft Wallace Carothers leads a team of organic chemists and chemical engineer researchers at duPont to develop NYLON the first of many “synthetic fibers”. The beginnings of polymer research

  22. 20th Century Technology Using Albert Einstein's model “E=mc2 scientists from Europe and the United States at the University of Chicago produce the first nuclear pile. The age of controlled nuclear reaction begins. John Brainerd , at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Engineering develop the first computer called the “ENIAC”. It weighted over 30 tons and occupied over 1500 square feet. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, at Bell Labs, discovered that current changes in one part of a diode caused current changes in another part of a diode and create the transistor.

  23. 20th Century Technology Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor discovers that the transistor’s silicon crystal could be made to be its own circuit board. “transistors - the switch that controls the world” Pratt & Whitney develop turbojet engines Boeing Airplane Company develop the Boeing 707 capable of transporting 180 passangers at speeds of 600 mph Theodore Maiman produces the first working laser which has mushroomed to encompass surgeons, transmit telephone calls, track storms, to checkout in supermarkets, to weld steel, to cut fabric and to produce holograms

  24. 20th Century Technology • Communication Satellites - now handle more than half of all transoceanic telephone, television and audio network program distribution And the list goes ONAND ON AND ON

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