ap review session 1450 1750 n.
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  1. AP REVIEW SESSION 1450-1750

  2. Changes in Europe affect the whole world • Note status of Europe pre-1450 • 1450: Europe in early stages of growth • 1750: Europe dominating world trade, cause for population movements, governments, interactions w/ indigenous populations


  4. The Renaissance(ch. 14) • Post Black Death: increase in population, trade, middle class • Medieval Europe: Church and afterlife; local concerns for well-being • Crusades: brought ancient texts back from Islamic/Byzantine regions • Humanism: celebration of human achievements; poetry, history, language, moral philosophy • Northern Italy: trade city-states • Art: real human figures, 3-D, palaces/cathedrals (Sistine Chapel) • Michelangelo, Leo da Vinci, • Spread to North and Western Europe • Art/artists commissioned by Church and secular leaders • Printing Press: Johannes Gutenberg (tech from Song China); allowed texts in native languages • New writing: Machiavelli, Thomas More, Erasmus, Shakespeare

  5. Protestant Reformation: Role of printing press 1517 Martin Luther/ 95 Theses Lutherans, Calvinists Henry VIII and Anglican Church of England Southern Europe: mostly Catholic Northern Germany/Scandanavia: Lutheran Scotland (Calvinist), England (Anglican) Counter-Reformation Win back souls Clarify position, supreme authority of pope Role of Jesuits: example and conversions Council of Trent 1545-1563: Church’s positions, trials of heretics, Latin Protestant and Counter-Reformations (ch. 16)

  6. Scientific Revolution Role of Renaissance/Prot. Ref 1543 Copernicus: Heliocentric theory 1632 Galileo: proved Helio theory; question Church authority Works banned Scientific method Rift in society: Church vs. Scientific findings Enlightenment Reform society w/ rational laws that governed society Divine right vs. reason Social Contract The Dead Guys: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): Leviathan; man evil, need good ruler Locke(1632-1704): born free, inalienable rights Rousseau (1712-1778): all men equal, majority rule Voltaire; Montesquieu The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment (ch. 16)

  7. Spain/Portugal England France Germany Ottoman Empire Russia India China Japan DEVELOPMENTS IN SPECIFIC COUNTRIES AND EMPIRES: 1450-1750

  8. Spain/Portugal (ch. 14, 15) • 1469 King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella unite Spain • Support of exploration; naval fleet • Charles V (Hapsburg, inherited empire), abdicated in 1556. Phillip II took throne • Spanish Inquisition again, Dutch Netherlands independent • Defeated by English in 1588 • Gold from New World not enough to maintain power

  9. England (ch. 16) • Henry VIII 1509-1547: Church of England • Elizabeth (Henry’s daughter): golden age • Elizabethan Age 1558-1603: commercial expansion, exploration, colonization (joint-stock companies) • Religious battles- Puritans • English Civil War 1641: Oliver Cromwell • Establishment of English Commonwealth; Stuart Restoration 1660-1688 • Glorious Revolution 1688: bloodless, William & Mary of Netherlands; English Bill of Rights 1689: monarchs Anglican and powers limited

  10. France (ch. 16) • 100 Year’s War: English out of France • 1598 Edict of Nantes: toleration b/t Catholics and Hugenots (French Protestants) • Bourbon Kings until 1792 • Cardinal Richelieu: advisor to Bourbons to strengthen Fr. Crown; Cardinal Mazarin & Louis XIV • Louis XIV: “Sun King”; glorify France w/ arts; Versailles • Jean Baptist Colbert: mercantilist; warfare increase size of Fr. Empire • Wars very costly, still center of the arts

  11. German Regions (ch. 16) • Holy Roman Empire lost parts of Hungary to Ottoman Turks in 1500s • 30 Yr’s War (1618-1648) weakened HR Emperors • 1700s, Prussia (northern German city-sts) gaining power • 1555 Peace of Augsburg: end C vs. P wars, but 30 Yr’s War ended it • 30 Yr’s War: France benefit, most powerful ctry; Prussia dominate German territories • 1648 Peace of Westphalia: small German c-s independent- Prussia

  12. Ottoman Empire (ch. 19) • End of Mongols = start of Ottoman Empire • 1453 Turks take Constantinople, end Byz Empire; Christianity out, Islam in • Growth of empire = Janissaries • Selim I 1512- Islamic center @ Istanbul • Suleiman the Magnificent: 1520, golden age, push to Eastern Europe- Hungary, siege of Vienna

  13. Russia (ch. 20) • Center of Orthodox Christianity after fall of Byzantines • 1480 Ivan III: no more Mongols; Ivan IV (the Terrible) estab absolute rule; Cossacks used to expand East • 1613 Michael Romanov (Dynasty to 1917)- consolidate power expand empire • 1689: Russia to Pacific Ocean, border w/ Qing Empire • Peter the Great: 1682-1725: Westernization; use of serfs • Catherine the Great: 1762-1796: enlightened despot, westernization; expansion to Poland and Black Sea; use of serfs

  14. India (ch. 19) • 1526: Babur defeated Delhi Sultanate • Mughal Empire: united India, previously not done • Akbar: 1556-1605 religious toleration for H & I; no more head tax or sati; allowed for mixing • Golden Age of art, architecture: Taj Mahal • Post-Akbar India: no religious toleration and Euro involvement • Pre-1750: Europeans not seen as threat to India; trade allowed

  15. China (ch. 20) • 1368-1644: Ming Dynasty; Confucian, civil service exam • Zheng He!!! Why did he go? Why did he come back? • 1644: Qing Dynasty (Manchu from north); Kangxi 1662-1722, Qianlong 1735-1795 • Expansion of Chinese empire while closing off to outside world • Canton System • McCartney Mission 1793

  16. Japan (ch. 20) • 1185 Kamakura -> 1500 Ashikaga -> • 1600-1868 Tokugawa Shogunate: capital to Edo (Tokyo); seclusion from outside • Class system, decentralized • Industrial families • Closing of Japan to prevent spread of foreign influence (Dutch allowed at Deshima) • Regional “outer” lords profited from illegal trade

  17. EUROPEAN EXPLORATIONandEXPANSION Pre-1450: land travel; Indian Ocean & Med. Sea linked up w/ routes thru Persia, Arabia, N.Africa, C. Asia from Silk Road

  18. Portugal Geography Royal family supported exploration Prince Henry the Navigator, 1488: Dias rounds southern tip of Africa 1497: Vasco da Gama, rounds Cape of Good Hope; E. Africa, India Control of Brazil Spain United; F & I financed explorations 1492: Columbus thought China/India located where Americas are- found Cuba and West Indies 1494- Treaty of Tordesillas Spain controlled most of C & S. America; Portuguese and Spanish Explorations (ch. 15)

  19. God, Gold, Glory Vespucci Cabot Ponce de Leon Vasco de Balboa Magellan Pizarro vs. Atahualpa Cortes vs. Montezuma Drake Hudson Technologies Lateen sails Astrolabe Magnetic Compass Three-Masted Caravels Explorers and Technology(ch. 15)

  20. Impact of Explorations: New World Empires(ch. 15, 17) • 1519: Cortes to Mexico; Aztecs; no horses -Montezuma thought Cortes a god, sent gold -Cortes and men took capital, decimated empire 1531: Pizarro meets Atahualpa (Incan emperor); Incas destroyed, Pizarro in control of region by 1535 Patterns of Dominance: 1) Isolation = vulnerability 2) Spanish military tech; steel, horses 3) established practices of forced labor, conversion, empire building from Europe

  21. LABOR SYSTEMS(ch. 17, 18) Social Hierarchy: Peninsulares  Creoles  Mestizos Mulattos  native Americans

  22. Encomienda System(ch. 17) • Viceroys ran Spanish empire “New Spain” • Natives divided among Peninsulares for labor • Discovery of silver in Peru and Mexico in 1540s meant more demand • Mita system: Amerindians forced to work 6 months/yr (every 7 yrs) in mines, farms, textile factories • African slave labor introduced as Amerindian population declined

  23. African Slave Trade/Atlantic System (ch. 18) • Portuguese took slaves in early explorations • Demand from New World plantations • African rulers cooperated w/ slavers– why? • Atlantic System: food, goods, weapons for people; Triangle Trade, etc. • What motivated Euros? Africans?

  24. Demographic ShiftsEnvironmental ChangesColumbian Exchange • Whole civilizations wiped out: Arawak, Aztec, Inca • European emigration • Forced migrations • Growth of middle class in Europe; power of colonial gov’ts growing • Massive changes from 1450!!!

  25. The Columbian Exchange • New foods, animals, resources to New World Europe/Africa to Americas: horses, pigs, goats, chili peppers, sugar cane Americas to Europe/Africa: squash, beans, corn, potatoes, cacao • Diseases, weapons, people transferred

  26. A New Global Economy • Age of Exploration b/c of financing, support by gov’t and rulers • Banking; Church gave in to state interests • Joint-stock companies got royal charters for colonies • Colonies or monopolies on trade routes • British East India Co, Dutch East India Co. • Mercantilism- all about the mother country; raw materials and markets • Resentment in colonies

  27. Comparisons • Compare European monarchies w/ land-based Asian Empires • Compare labor systems: Atlantic slave trade; plantation vs. encomienda systems • Compare the building of empires in Asia, Africa, Europe: how was power consolidated? Who had control? Who lost it? • Compare Russia’s interaction w/ West and China or the Ottoman Empire

  28. The Big Picture! Questions to consider: • Why did Europe become the dominant power 1450-1750? Why were some European nation-states develop vast empires? • How did the various non-European cultures interact w/ Europeans? Why? Consequences? • How did the global economy change from 1450-1750? • How were the world’s civilizations impacted?