Biochemical Compounds You are what you eat!
Why Do We Eat? • For energy • For nutrients • For sport??
6 Types of Nutrients: • Carbohydrates • Fats (Lipids) • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
CARBOHYDRATES • “CARB” is not a four-letter word! • Refers to the “sugar” family • Contain C, H, & O • Examples: • Glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, etc. • Starch, cellulose,etc.
Simple CHO’s: • Monomer: • one building block of a larger molecule • Monosaccharide: • 1 molecule of a sugar (e.g. 1 glucose) • Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
Simple CHO’s: • Disaccharide: • 2 sugars linked together • Eg. Sucrose, fructose
Complex CHO’s • Polymer: • 2 or more monomers linked together • Polysaccharide: • 3 or more sugars linked together in chains • E.g. Starch & Cellulose in plants • E.g. Glycogen in animals
Why CARBs? • CHO’s provide the body with immediate energy needs • Should be 50 – 55% of your calories • 4 calories per gram of CHO • Sources: • Fruits, vegetables, grains, breads, pasta, cereals, etc.
Low CARB Diets??? The End!!!
FATS (LIPIDS) • You are what you eat???
FATS • Fats are a necessary evil… they are a tremendous source of energy! • 9 calories per gram • Should be 30% of calories • 4 “fat-soluble” vitamins (D, E, A, K)
FATS • Efficient way for the body to store calories • Any excess calories are stored as fat in fat cells (adipose tissue)
FATS • Are made up of chains of C & H called fatty acids • Triglyceride: • a glycerol molecule linking 3 fatty acids
Types of Fat • Saturated Fats: • Solid at room temperature • found in butter, meat, etc. (animal fats) • all carbons are “saturated” with hydrogen
Types of Fat • Unsaturated fats: • Liquid at room temperature, usually called oils • Plant Fats: canola oil, olive oil, corn oil, etc. • Fatty acids contain double bonds (missing H’s)
Unsaturated Fats: • Monounsaturated Fat: • Contain 1 double bond • Polyunsaturated Fat: • Contain more than 1 double bond
FATTY ISSUES! • High fat = high calorie! • High fat = increase health problems (diabetes, CHD, stroke, etc.)
PROTEIN: The building blocks of life!
PROTEIN: • Used to make and repair many of the structures of our body • Proteins are chains of amino acids linked together
PROTEIN: • Also important as messengers (enzymes) Adrenalin
PROTEINS: • All proteins are created from only 20 different amino acids • Your body can make 12 of these (“non-essential AA”), the other 8 you must get from food (“essential AA”)
Amino Acids: • All AA’s have the same general structure, but one portion of the molecule varies (“R group”)
PROTEIN: • Should be 15 – 20 % of our calories. • Sources: • Meat, fish, cheese, eggs, beans, etc.
PROTEIN… Can There Be Too Much of a Good Thing? • Recommended intake is around 1 g per kg of body weight (more for children and extreme athletes) • Most North Americans take in around twice the RDA!
Nucleic Acids Breaking the “Code”
Nucleic Acids • (DNA, RNA) essential to all living things. • Polymers formed from monomer molecules called nucleotides. • A nucleotide contains: 1) A nitrogenous base 2) A 5 carbon pentose sugar 3) A Phosphate group
Nucleic Acids • Nitrogenous bases in DNA are Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). • In RNA, Thymine is replaced by Uracil (U) • Phosphate groups and sugar molecules form backbone of the chain, bases stick out like the teeth on a zipper.
2 Types of Nucleic Acids • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) • The genetic code for all proteins and life functions. • 2 nucleotide strands linked by Hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases (A & T, C & G). • A double helix. • Unique genetic information is determined by the sequence of nucleotides.
2 Types of Nucleic Acids 2. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) • copy of code for 1 protein. • RNA carries the “protein blueprint” from nucleus to the ribosome during protein synthesis. • Single nucleotide strand containing A, U, C & G.
How long is DNA? • There are billions of base pairs in each DNA molecule. • The total length of DNA in each cell is 2 metres! • Your total DNA is long enough to reach the moon and back… 6000 times!!