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Biochemical Pathways

Biochemical Pathways

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Biochemical Pathways

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  1. Biochemical Pathways Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

  2. AUTOTROPHS • make their own food. • Ex: Phototrophs….Use light energy • Ex: Chemotrophs…Use inorganiccompounds • HETEROTROPHS • Must eat org. mol. for energy (carbon source).

  3. Form of energy Other forms: thermal, electrical, kinetic, sound, chemical Travels in waves (diff. wavelengths) Light

  4. Wavelength (λ)

  5. FM The Electromagnetic Spectrum

  6. Photosynthesis (Psyn): • Process: Light energy converts to chemical energy (sugars) • Pigments used to capture light energy

  7. Pigments

  8. Chlorophyll a • Chlorophyll a • C55H72O5N4Mg • Molecular wt. 893.5 • Blue-Green (Not on test)

  9. Chlorophyll b • Chlorophyll b • C55H70O6N4Mg • Molecular wt. 907.5 • Yellow-Green (Not on test)

  10. Anthocyanin • C15H11O+ • Blue, red, pp • fruit, flowers (Not on test)

  11. ß Carotene • C40H56 • Mol. wt. 536.9 • Orange,Red (Not on test)

  12. Xanthophyll • C40H56O2 • Mol. Wt. 568 • Yellow (Not on test)

  13. Chromatography • Splitting pigmentsapart

  14. Evergreen plants • psyn. year round. • Deciduous plants • affected by temp. and lightchanges; leaves change color - drop. • Factors affecting the rate of psyn. • Temperature • Water availability • Intensity of light • CO2 availability

  15. Vocabulary • Chloroplast- plant cell organelle ; uses light energy to make chemical energy thru psyn., has chlorophyll • Chlorophyll- pigment: captures light energy • Stoma- opening under leaves; allows CO2 and O2 to diffuse in/out of leaf. (stomata, pl.) • Thylakoids- saclike body in chloroplast; made of photosynthetic membranes • Granum- stack of thylakoids (grana, pl.) • Stroma- fluid region outside thylakoid membranes in chloroplast. • NADP+- molecule that carries energy and hydrogen - becomes NADPH • ATP- chemical compound used to store energy

  16. A closer look at leaves:

  17. See this web page

  18. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Carbon dioxide and water are used to make sugar, with oxygen as a byproduct. Let’s draw this process… 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 light energy Balanced equation

  19. Chloroplast • Psyn. occurs here • Inside: • Thylakoids = flattened membrane-bound sacks; has chlorophylls. • Grana- stacks of thylakoids. • Stroma= fluid matrix surrounding stacks.

  20. Photosynthesis: two stages Light Dependent Reaction (LDR) Light Independent Reaction (LIR) or Calvin Cycle(used to be “dark Rx”) Both occur in chloroplast

  21. Photosynthesis: Light Dependent Rx • light energy captured by chlorophyll • H2O split – photolysis • O2 released • only takes place in light • occurs in thylakoids • makes NADPH & some ATP • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase

  22. (Not on test)

  23. Light Rx Process (site) (Light reaction animation)(Not on test)

  24. ATP Production during Aerobic Respiration involving the ETC and Chemiosmosis (Not on test) Chemiosmosis

  25. Photosynthesis: Light Independent Rx (Calvin Cycle) • No light needed • occurs in stroma fluid outsidethylakoids • NADPH & ATP powers cycle. • CO2 is carbon source to make glucose

  26. RESPIRATION: all organisms • Converts sugars to other power molecules • Stages: 1. Glycolysis THEN: 2a. Aerobic Resp. of Mitochondrion (in eukaryotes) OR: 2b. Anaerobic Resp. (Fermentation) (in pro/eu)

  27. How do cells get energy from glucose? • GLYCOLYSIS • Splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acids • Takes place in the cytosol • Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) • Very fast process

  28. What does that look like? C6H12O6 2 Pyruvic acids (3C ea.) 2ATP 2ADP CCCCCC CCCCCC 4 ADP 4ATP 2NADH 2NAD+

  29. Cellular Respiration Step 1 • Glycolysis(in cytosol, anaerobic) • Requires 2 ATP to start the process • Net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH • 2 pyruvic acids made

  30. Cellular Respiration Step 2, 3 (in mitochondrion of eukaryotes) • Kreb’s Cycle- • In matrix fluid- breaks pyruvic acids into acetyl CoA and CO2 (2 ATP formed) • Electron Transport chain- • In cristae membrane: ATP synthase converts ADP to ATP (32 ATP formed)

  31. O2 CO2 H2O

  32. Total ATP Yields • Glycolysis 2 ATP • Krebs Cycle 2 ATP • Electron Transport 32 ATP • Total ATP from one glucose = 36 molecules. • C6H12O6 + 6O26CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP This is the balanced equation for resp.

  33. Respiration schematic

  34. How Energy Cycles • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration • form a continuous cycle : the products of one process are the reactants for the other. • Photosynthesis • 6CO2 + 6H2O light C6H12O6 + 6O2 • Cellular Respiration • C6H12O6 + 602 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (ATP) What’s the actual difference between the two (besides the order in which things appear)?

  35. If NO Oxygen present… • Fermentation occurs (in cytosol) • Sustains glycolysis • Keeps 2 ATPs forming from each glucose • Two types: • Alcoholic ferm. (in prokaryotes, some eukaryotes) • Some bacteria, yeast. Byproducts: Ethyl alcohol and CO2 • Lactic Acid ferm. (in YOU, and other eukaryotes) • Muscle tissueByproduct: Lactic acid

  36. How fermentation sustains glycolysis • Keeps NADH cycle going