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Different Types of Rocks

Different Types of Rocks

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Different Types of Rocks

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  1. Different Types of Rocks 6th Grade

  2. How do Rocks form? • Igneous Rocks: forms from the cooling of magma or lava • Sedimentary Rocks: forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together • Metamorphic Rocks: forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure or chemical reactions

  3. How can one classify rocks? • By its texture: the look and feel of the rock’s surface • Grains: particles of minerals or other rocks • Give a rock its texture

  4. To describe a rock’s texture, geologists use terms based on the size, shape, and pattern of the grains

  5. Grain Size • 1) Fine Grain: grains are so small that they can only be seen with a microscope

  6. Grain Size - 2) Coarse grain: grains in a rock are large and easy to see

  7. Grain Shape • Rounded Grain: (Conglomerate) • Jagged Grain: (Breccia)

  8. Grain Pattern • Non-banded: • No patterns or bands noticeable • Banded: (foliated) • Grains lie in bands of different colors

  9. Igneous Rocks: “Igneous” comes from Latin word “ignis” which means “Fire” • 1) Extrusive rock = igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto Earth’s surface • 2) Intrusive rock = igneous rock that is formed when magma is hardened beneath the Earth’s surface

  10. Types of Igneous Rocks • Extrusive Rocks have a fine-grained or glassy texture • Intrusive Rocks have larger crystals in them because they cool more slowly

  11. Sedimentary Rocks • What is sediment? • Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things – ex. Sand grains, mud, pebbles AND shells, bones, leaves, stems, remains of living things

  12. Sedimentary Rocks: formed from erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation • Erosion: running water, wind, or ice loosen and carry away fragments of rock. • Deposition: the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it • Compaction: the process that presses sediments together • Cementation: the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together

  13. Types of Sedimentary Rocks • Clastic Rock: a sedimentary rock formed when rock fragments are squeezed together • Organic Rock: a sedimentary rock formed when the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers

  14. Metamorphic Rocks: “meta” = change and “morphosis” = form • Rocks that are changed by heat and pressure deep beneath the Earth’s surface • Metamorphic rocks can form out of igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rock • Collisions between Earth’s plates can push the rock down toward the heat of the mantle

  15. Metamorphic Rocks • Foliated: have their grains arranged in parallel layers or bands • Nonfoliated: mineral grains in these rocks are arranged randomly

  16. Granite turns into Gneiss • Shale turns into Slate • Limestone turns into Marble