The American Revolution: 1775-1783 Mr. Pirie Social Studies LMS
Exports & Imports: 1768-1783 (Goods leaving our Nation) (Goods coming into our Nation) Goods leaving our country, or exports also represents wealth coming into our country to pay for those goods. Likewise, goods coming into our country, or imports, represents wealth leaving our country paying for those goods. A positive balance of trade occurs when you have more exports (wealth in) than imports (wealth out). Similarly, a negative trade balance occurs when you more imports as a nation than exports. Can you see the story this line graph is showing?
Wholesale Price Index: 1770-1789 To pay for the war the Continental Congress printed millions of dollars. Because this increased the amount of bills in circulation faster than the supply of gold and silver to back them the value of the currency fell. We call this inflation, or when it takes more and more money to buy the same goods.
On the Eve of the Revolution ? Fighting on home ground / George Washington strongest navy / experienced army / larger population / wealth $ Inexperienced soldiers / shortage of supplies / relied on volunteers / not all Americans supported the war / no army or navy Fighting far from home / relied on mercenaries (hired soldiers from Germany)
Loyalist Strongholds As pacifists (non-violent), the religious group Quakers in PA refused to fight in the war. Note loyalists/Tories (people who supported England) strong holds in cities like New York and Charleston.
2nd Continental Congress becomes a Government Can you think of 5 actions this Congress took as the central government of the 13 Colonies? 3. Authorized the printing of money. 1. Created Continental Army with George Washington as commander. 4. Set up a post office. 5. Sent the Olive Branch Petition requesting King George protect the colonist's rights to avoid war. 2. Established committees to communicate with Native Americans and other countries.
Moving Toward Independence • In January 1776, Thomas Paine publishes a pamphlet called Common Sense. The pamphlet argued, in ‘common sense’ terms, why America should break from British rule. Within 3 months 120,000 copies of Common Sense were sold! • Taking further action, in June 1776, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston are tasked by the 2nd Continental Congress to draft a Declaration of Independence. The document, mostly written by Jefferson, was adopted on July 2, 1776, and signed by the president of the Congress, John Hancock, on July 4, 1776. painting by J.L.G. Ferris Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson (standing)
Bunker Hill (June 16, 1775) “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” -- Colonial Colonel Prescott The British suffered over 40% casualties.
The War in Canada [1775-1776] When learning the British planned to attack New York from Canada the Americans decided to attack first at Quebec. Lead by Benedict Arnold, the Americans were unable to capture Quebec and spent a long winter camped outside the city.
Defeat on Long Island 1776 Volunteering to spy on the British, young Nathan Hale posed as a school teacher to gather information on British troops. Caught with coded notes while trying to leaving the New York City at night, Hale is hung as spy. As he faced death his immortal last words were: “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” Washington’s troops are outmaneuvered and suffer a serious defeat. Just barely escaping under the cover of an unusually thick fog. Near collapse, Washington must find a way to rally his fading army. Thomas Paine answers the call by writing The Crisis, reminding Americans that great things do not come easily. New York City in Flames(1776)
Washington Crossing the Delaware 1776 On Christmas night 1776, Washington took 2,400 troops across the icy Delaware Rive to attack the enemy. Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851 The next day Washington surprises a force of Hessian mercenaries (foreign soldiers hired by King George) at Trenton, capturing more than 900. Then outmaneuvering British reinforcements to drive them from Princeton. “A few days ago [the Americans] had given up the cause for lost. Their late successes have turned the scale and now they are all liberty mad again.” – from the diary of a British soldier
Northern Campaign: NY & PA[1777-1778] The British plan called for a 3-pronged attack: ↑ Gen. Howe from the south ↓ Gen. Burgoyne from the north → Col. St. Leger from the west The goal to meet in Albany, NY taking control of the Hudson River and cutting off New England. Great plan, poor execution. Gen. Howe is the only one who comes close to making it to Albany, in spite of the 40 wagons of personal items he makes his army move. At Saratoga, NY, Burgoyne is met by Gen. Horatio Gates in one of the most important battles of the war.
Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War Trapped and outnumbered, British General Burgoyne is force to surrender to American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777. France, encouraged by this victory and now seeing the possibility of the Colonies winning the conflict, take advantage and enter the war on the Americans side. A modern-day re-enactment
Washington at Valley Forge During the winter of 1777-78, Washington and his men endured a terrible period of suffering. Yet somehow, with enormous determination and effort (and help from others), the Continental Army emerged better prepared to take on the British. Marquis de Lafayette: French noble who became a trusted aide to Washington. Friedrich von Steuben: from Germany, he help drill the troops at Valley Forge into a fighting force. Casimir Pulaski: Polish cavalry officer who died fighting for the Continental Army in the South. Juan de Miralles: representing Spain, who urged Spain and her allies to send money.
The Southern Campaign [1780-1781] British General Cornwallis chases the Southern Continental Army hoping for a deceive victory. At Guildford Courthouse, Cornwallis does force Gen. Nathanael Green and the Continental Army to retreat, but only after sustaining great losses. Now concerned for his own army’s safety, Cornwallis makes his way to Yorktown to meet the British fleet.
Britain’s “Southern Strategy” • Britain thought that they could take advantage of the concentration of Loyalists in the South. • They hoped the use of British sea power would lead to decisive victories over the Southern states. • Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving. The Battle of Kings Mountain was the only just Patriots vs. Loyalists battle of the war. A big victory for the Patriots. Painting by F.C. Yohan
The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau AdmiralDe Grasse Learning that the French Fleet under the command of Admiral Francois de Grasse was heading south and not to New York, Washington quickly makes a risky plan to take advantage of Gen Cornwallis decision to camp at Yorktown. Moving under strict secrecy, Washington is able to surprise Cornwallis forces at Yorktown, and after several days of bombardment, force Cornwallis into complete surrender. This marks the moment the British realized they could not win the war.
Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: “The World Turned Upside Down!” Washington’s plan work wonderfully, with the arrival of the French Fleet lead by Admiral De Grasse any exit by sea for the British Army in Yorktown was ended. After more than week of steady bombardment, Gen. Corwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781. Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 American tactics of guerrilla warfare, or hit-and-run, prove very affective against the British’s forces in the southern colonies.
Why the Americans Won! Determination and spirit of all Patriots, including women and African-Americans. George Washington’s leadership and skills. They fought on their own land, while the British had to bring troops and supplies from thousands of miles away. British succeeded in occupying cities, but had difficulty controlling the countryside. Help from other nations, such as France.
Major Military Victories The Americans The British • 1776 Trenton & Princeton -- G. Washington surprises British forces on Xmas river crossing. • 1777 Saratoga – turning point of the war by drawing France into the conflict. • 1777 Serapis vs Bonhomme Richard – John Paul Jones “I have not yet begun to fight.” • 1781 Siege of Yorktown – Washington ends British chances of winning. • 1776 the Battle of Long Island (NY) – Americans just escape under cover of fog. • 1777 – Gen. Howe takes city, Continental Congress forced to flee. • 1778 the Battle of Charleston (SC) – worst American defeat. • 1778 the Battle of Savannah (GA) – lead by Gen. Clinton the British overrun most of the state.
Women Contributing to Independence • Judith Sargeant Murray – wrote essay on educating women equally as men. • Maratha Washington – made clothes for the troops and cared for the sick at Valley Forge. • Deborah Sampson – disguised herself as a man so she could fight. • Abigail Adams – managed her family farm while husband was away. • Margaret Corbin – joined her husband on the battlefied. • Betsy Ross – credited with amking the first American flag. • Mary Hayes – by carrying water to her husband and troops earns the nickname Molly Pitcher.
While Washington asked the Contential Congress to enlist free African Americans, Southern states fearing revolts, persuaded the Congress to bared them from serving African Americans Join the Fight Crispus Attucks is seen by some as a patriot of the pre-Revolutionary War era. As part of a rioting mob, he was killed in 1770 during an attack on British soldiers guarding the custom house which came to be known as the Boston Massacre. As the need for soldiers grew, many states ignored the ban, such as Rhode Island that raised an all-African American regigment in 1778. About 5,000 African Americans joined the fight for Liberty, among them Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem who faught at Concord.
Representing America: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay North America After theTreaty of Paris, 1783 Extended the territory of America. British promised to withdraw all their troops. Recognizes the United State as independent nation. America given the right to fish off the coast of Canada. British merchants could collect debts from before the war. Congress recommends states return property taken from Loyalists.