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AP EXAM REVIEW ! Part V

AP EXAM REVIEW ! Part V

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AP EXAM REVIEW ! Part V

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  1. AP EXAM REVIEW!Part V

  2. #5Heading Toward the Civil War and Reconstruction (1845-1877)

  3. Political and Judicial Activity Before the War Election of 1844 James Polk (Democrat) vs. Henry Clay Polk’s slogan: “54°40 or fight”, means that America’s Northwestern border should be extended to the 54°40 latitude, deep in Canadian territory Polk’s supporters also wanted the immediate annexation of Texas, as well as expansion into the Mexican-claimed territories (New Mexico, Arizona, and California) Clay favored expansion too, but at a slower rate He hoped to avoid war by negotiating with Mexico and Britain for the land that America wanted After Polk’s win (but before her assumed the presidency), president Tyler annexed Texas (arguing that Polk’s victory amounted to a mandate for annexation) War with Mexico seemed likely
  4. Political and Judicial Activity Before the War The Polk Presidency Polk realized that the U.S. couldn’t afford to fight two territorial wars at the same time, especially if one was against Great Britain He conceded on demands for expansion deep into Canada aimed at setting a more reasonable American-Canadian border The Oregon Treaty: signed with Great Britain in 1846, allowed the U.S. to acquire peacefully what is now Oregon, Washington, and parts of Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana Polk now concentrated on the Southwest and Mexico He tried to buy the territory, and when that failed he provoked Mexico until it attacked American troops Congress granted Polk a declaration of war The Mexican American War began
  5. Political and Judicial Activity Before the War The Mexican-American War Didn’t have universal support from the public Abolitionists (Northern) feared that new states in the West would become slave states; tipping the balance of power in Congress THE WILMOT PROVISO: congressional bill prohibiting the extension of slavery into any territory gained from Mexico This was defeated and never passed When the U.S. successfully invaded Mexico City, the war was over THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: Mexico handed over almost all of the modern Southwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, and Utah This is known as the MEXICAN CESSION U.S. paid $15 million for the land
  6. Political and Judicial Activity Before the War The Mexican Cession Greatly increased the nation’s potential wealth Gold was found at Sutter’s Mill (starting the California Gold Rush) the same year the treaty was signed Also caused major problems regarding the status of slavery Democrats’ would never oppose slavery, and they introduced the concept of POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY Popular Sovereignty: the territories themselves would decide, by vote, whether to allow slavery within their borders This issue split the Whig Party in two Antislavery Whigs (“The Conscience Whigs) “The Cotton Whigs” The Whigs won another presidential election (1848, Zachary Taylor), but the party dissolved shortly after A new national party was emerging – The Republicans
  7. The Compromise of 1850 Immediately after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, sectional strife over the new territories began Settlers flooded into California (Gold Rush) and the populous territory wanted statehood Californians already had a state constitution That constitution prohibited slavery, so the South opposed Cali’s bid for statehood At the very least, Southerners argued, they should accept slavery in accordance with the boundary drawn by the Missouri Compromise in 1820 Southerners began to discuss openly the possibility of secession
  8. The Compromise of 1850 Democrat Stephen Douglas and Whig Henry Clay hammered out what they thought to be a workable solution, known as the COMPROMISE OF 1850 When presented as a complete package, the compromise was defeated in Congress Douglas broke the package down into separate bills, organizing the majorities to support each other Together, these bills Admitted California as a free state Enacted a stronger FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW Created the territories of Utah and New Mexico, but left the status of slavery up to each territory to decide only when it came time to write its constitution (popular sovereignty) Abolished the slave trade, not slavery itself, in Washington D.C. It was seen as immoral to “buy and sell human flesh in the shadow of the nation’s capitol”
  9. The Compromise of 1850 The fugitive slave law made it much easier to retrieve escaped slaves and required free states to cooperate in their retrieval Abolitionists considered it coercive, immoral, and an affront to their liberty Antislavery sentiments in the North grew stronger in 1852 with the publication of UNCLE TOM’S CABIN Uncle Tom’s Cabin Sentimental novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Based her damning depictions of plantation life on information provided her by abolitionist friends Like Thomas Paine’s Common Sense during the Rev. War, it was an extremely power piece of propaganda
  10. The Kansas-Nebraska Act and “Bleeding Kansas” After California, no new states would be admitted into the Union until 1858 Settlers poured into Kansas and Nebraska territories finding no established civil authority Congress wanted to build railways but needed some form of government to impose order, secure land, supervise construction, etc. Stephen Douglas sought to address these with the KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT OF 1854 The fate of slavery was left up the residents (never addressing when or how they were to decide) Opening these territories up to slavery, this repealed the Missouri Compromise
  11. The Kansas-Nebraska Act Notice the location of the Kansas and Nebraska territories and how opening them up to popular sovereignty would automatically repeal the Missouri Compromise
  12. The Kansas Nebraska act This drove the final stake into the Whig Party Anti-slavery Whigs were more convinced that the national party would never take a strong stand, and they joined Northern Democrats and former Free-Soilers Formed the new Republican Party Republicans: not abolitionist, but dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories Also championed a wide range of issues Development of new roads More liberal land distribution in the West Increased protective tariffs The Republican Party quickly grew in the North, where it won a majority of congressional seats in 1954
  13. The Kansas Nebraska act Another new party formed, THE AMERICAN PARTY (AKA the Know Nothings) Called the Know Nothings because they remained secretive about their political agenda They rallied around a single issue: hatred of foreigners (nativism) The Kansas-Nebraska Act also provoked violence in the territories Both abolitionist and proslavery groups rushed into the territories, planning to form governments in hopes of winning the two future states for their side
  14. “Bleeding Kansas” Just prior to the Kansas election, thousands of pro slavery Missourians (called Border Ruffians) relocated in Kansas, resulting in an illegal, proslavery government The new legislature, recognized by President Pierce, promptly declared Kansas a slave territory Abolitionists refused to accept this and set up their own government Proslavery forces took Pierce’s recognition as a license to expel the abolitionists, and the demolished the abolitionist city of Lawrence Abolitionist JOHN BROWN led a raid on a proslavery camp, murdering five Afterwards, gangs from both sides roamed the territory to attack the opposition This came to be known as BLEEDING KANSAS (or Bloody Kansas)
  15. Buchanan, Dred Scott, and the Election of 1860 As president, James Buchanan tried to maintain the status quo He opposed abolitionist activism in the South and West He was at a loss (like most of the nations leaders) when it came to a permanent solution to the question of slavery He merely hoped to maintain the Union until a solution presented itself DRED SCOTT V. SANFORD: arose months after Buchanan took office, escalated the slavery crisis Scott: a former slave whose master had taken him to territories where slavery was illegal, and he declared himself a free man and sued for freedom Scott won the case, then lost the appeal, so the case ended up in the Supreme Court
  16. Buchanan, Dred Scott, and the Election of 1860 Dred Scott v. Sanford Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote the majority opinion Taney was one-sided and pro slavery Declared that slaves were property, not citizens, and therefor they could not sue in federal courts Taney also ruled that Congress could not regulate slavery in the territories (as it did in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820) This nullified the Kansas-Nebraska Act as well This basically said that slavery could go anywhere, anytime Major victory for the Southern cause
  17. Buchanan, Dred Scott, and the Election of 1860 1858: Senate election year, contained the famous LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES Lincoln-Douglas debates NOT DEBATES FOR A PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION! For an Illinois Senate seat Stephen Douglas: leading Democrat in U.S. Senate Abraham Lincoln: rising star in the newly form Republican party, gaining a reputation by opposing the Mexican War and KS-NE act Debates gave voice to the issues and concerns that divided a nation heading for civil war “This nation cannon exist permanently half slave and half free” – Lincoln Douglas’ FREEPORT DOCTRINE – attempt to defend popular sovereignty
  18. Buchanan, Dred Scott, and the Election of 1860 John Brown’s raid on HARPER’S FERRY (1859) Brown hoped to spark a slave revolt, but failed After his execution, news spread that Brown received financial support from Northern abolitionists Election of 1860 Stephen Douglas: supported by Northern Democrats John Breckinridge: supported by Southern Democrats John Bell: Constitutional Union party (the upper South) Abraham Lincoln: The Republican Party Lincoln received 40% of the vote, but won more than 50% of the electoral vote, winning the presidency December 1860, three months before Lincoln’s inauguration, South Carolina seceded from the Union, seven states followed to form the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA Jefferson Davis chosen as president of the new country
  19. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Cautiously, Lincoln tried to maintain control of federal forts in the South while waiting for the Confederacy to make a move April 12th, 1861: The South attacked Fort Sumter, starting the Civil War The war was not solely (or even primarily) about slavery THE BORDER STATES: slave states that fought fought for the Union Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware North: believed they were fighting to preserve the Union South: believed they were fighting to preserve state’s rights to govern themselves
  20. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The South fought to maintain the right to govern themselves locally, but ironically the Confederate government brought them under greater control than they had ever experienced Jefferson Davis saw the North’s advantages in population, transportation, and economics and knew the weak South couldn’t mount an effective defense Davis took control of the Southern economy (imposing taxes), railroads and commercial shipping, and created a large government bureaucracy to oversee this Southerners opposed these moves, so he declared martial law and suspended the writ of habeas corpus (protection against improper imprisonment)
  21. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Confederacy Davis had some success modernizing the South, but the Confederacy lagged too far in industrialization to catch up to the North Many Southerners plunged into poverty as inflation set in 1862, Confederacy imposed conscription (a military draft), requiring small farmers to serve in the Confederate Army Conscription Class Conflict Wealthy were allowed to hire surrogates to perform military service in their place Anyone owning more than 20 slaves was except from the draft Class tensions increased
  22. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Union The Northern economy received a boost from the war from the demand for war-related goods spurred manufacturing Many succumbed to the temptations of greed, overcharging the government for services and products (war profiteering) Like Davis, Lincoln oversaw a tremendous increase in the power of the central government during the war Implemented economic development programs without waiting for congressional approval Championed numerous government loans and grants to businesses Raised tariffs to protect Union trade Suspended the writ of habeas corpus in the border states
  23. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Emancipation of the Slaves As previously stated, neither the Union nor the Confederacy initially declared the Civil War to be a war about slavery The Constitution protected slavery where it already existed During his election, Lincoln argued for: Gradual emancipation Compensation for slave holders for liberated slaves The colonization of freed slaves somewhere outside of the U.S. Now that the South left Congress, Lincoln faced a legislature much more progressive on slavery than he was Radical Republicans: wanted immediate emancipation Lincoln began to take his first cautious steps toward emancipation
  24. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) September 1862, Lincoln issued the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION The Emancipation Proclamation DID NOT FREE ALL SLAVES! It stated that on January 1st, 1863, the government would liberate all slaves residing in those states “still in rebellion” Throughout the war, Lincoln never acknowledged secession, referred to the Confederacy as “those states in rebellion” The Proclamation did not liberate the slaves in the border states, nor did it liberate slaves in Southern counties already under control of the Union Army The Proclamation also allowed Southern states to rejoin the Union WITHOUT giving up slavery
  25. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Emancipation Proclamation had an immediate effect on the war Escaped slaves and free black enlisted in the Union Army in substantial numbers (nearly 200,000) European countries were discouraged from recognizing and trading with the Confederacy This prevented the Confederacy from forging much needed military alliances, and weakened the Confederate economy Two years later Lincoln gave his support to complete emancipation (while campaigning for reelection) Lincoln lobbied for a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery; the result was the THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT Lincoln offered the South a five year delay in implementation of the amendment as well as $400 million in compensation for slave owners Jefferson Davis’ commitment to complete Southern independence scuttled away any chance for these compromises
  26. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Election of 1864 and the End of the Civil War As the 1864 election approached, popular opinion in the North and South favored an end to the war General George McClellan: Lincoln’s opponent, campaigned on a peace platform Northern victories throughout the summer of 1864 played a large part in helping Lincoln gain reelection By the Spring of 1865, Union victory was virtually assured, and the government established the FREEDMAN’S BUREAU The Freedmen’s Bureau: established to help newly liberated slaves Helped with immediate problems of survival (food/housing) and developed social institutions, such as schools
  27. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) April 1865: The Confederate leaders surrendered Sadly, John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln just five days later Civil War results More than 3 million fought, more than 500,000 died (just as many were seriously wounded) Both governments ran up huge debts The South was decimated SHERMAN’S MARCH: Union army burned everything in its wake from Atlanta to the sea to destroy Confederate morale and destroy their resources)
  28. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment At the wars end, three major questions faced the nation Under what conditions would the Southern states be readmitted into the Union? What would be the status of blacks in the postwar nation? What should be done with the rebels? Reconstruction refers to the period of 1865-1877 This is from the end of the Civil War to the end of military reconstruction when the Union Army withdrew from the South The process of Reconstruction was very complicated and complex, and some argue that it continues to this day
  29. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment (cont.) Reconstruction included: Readmitting Southern states into the Union Physically reconstructing and rebuilding Southern towns, cities, and property destroyed during the war Integrating newly freed black slaves into American society This proved to be the most difficult one Lincoln maintained that he had no intention of punishing the South and after the war he wanted the Union to reunite quickly and painlessly His second inaugural address: “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations”
  30. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment (cont.) Lincoln’s plan is referred to as the TEN PERCENT PLAN Ten Percent Plan: simply required 10% of those voters who had voted in the 1860 election to swear an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation through the Thirteenth Amendment Congress had another vision, as they viewed the South as “conquered territory” Territories are under jurisdiction of Congress, not the president Radical Republicans enacted the Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Former Confederate states shall be ruled by a military governor and required 50% of the electorate to swear an oath of allegiance to the U.S. With Lincoln’s assassination, Vice President Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency
  31. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment (cont.) When the war ended, Congress was in recess and would not convene for eight months The early stages of Reconstruction were left entirely in Johnson’s hands Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: based on a plan approved by Lincoln Called for a provisional military government in the South until they were readmitted Required all Southern citizens to swear a loyalty oath Southern legislatures passed BLACK CODES Limited freedmen’s rights to assemble and travel, also instituted curfew laws and required blacks to carry special passes Most states took the old laws and replaced slaves with freedmen
  32. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment (cont.) Congress was divided among conservative Republicans Moderates Radical Republicans: wanted to extend democracy in the South and punish the South for seceding All Republicans agreed that Johnson’s plan needed some modification, but Johnson refused to compromise and vetoed compromise packages, increasing tensions in government In response, radicals drew up CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION First component was the Fourteenth Amendment Stated that if you are born in the U.S., you are a citizen of the U.S. and you are a citizen of the state where you reside Prohibited states from depriving any citizen of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” Prevented states from denying any citizen “equal protection of the law” Gave states the choice either to give freedmen the right to vote or to stop counting them among their voting population Barred prominent Confederates from holding political office Excused the Confederacy’s war debt
  33. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment (cont.) 1866, the North voted for a Congress more heavily weighted toward the end of the political spectrum The new Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867, imposing martial law on the South Also forced each state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, and to send it’s new constitution to Congress for approval Andrew Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton (a Radical Republican) and violated the Tenure of Office Act The Tenure of Office Act: stated that the president had to secure the consent of the Senate before removing his appointees once they’d been approved by that body Congress impeached him mainly because he was getting in the way of Reconstruction Johnson was acquitted by one vote, but for the remainder of his presidency he was powerless
  34. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Reconstruction and Johnson’s Impeachment (cont.) With new president Ulysses S. Grant, Congress forged ahead in its efforts to remake the South The Fifteenth Amendment (1869) required states to allow black men the right to vote (women would still wait another half-century for this right) Passed because Southern states were required to ratify it as a condition of reentry into the Union
  35. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Failure of Reconstruction A Few successes New state constitutions allowed ALL Southern men to vote (previously it was only land-owning men) Replaced appointed government positions with elected positions Rail/industrial development stimulated in the South Blacks served in Southern governments (huge step forward) Failures Public opinion turned on Reconstruction Scalawags: Southerners who cooperated with the policies Carpetbaggers: Northerners who ran the policies
  36. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Failure of Reconstruction The Civil War was over, but a war of intimidation began, spearheaded by the KU KLUX KLAN The Ku Klux Klan: targeted those who supported Reconstruction Attacked/murdered scalawags, black and white Republican leaders, community activists etc.
  37. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) The Election of 1876 No candidate won the needed electoral vote to win the presidency Remember: if no candidate receives a majority of electoral votes, the election is thrown into the House of Representatives. You should remember, for example, that Andrew Jackson lost the presidency to John Quincy Adams through the corrupt bargain in the House No candidate could be chosen, so Congress created a bipartisan commission consisting of senators, representatives, and Supreme Court Justices The Compromise of 1877 was struck by this commission The agreement was: if Rutherford B. Hayes won the presidential election, he would end military reconstruction and pull federal troops out of South Carolina and Louisiana, thereby enabling Democrats to regain control of those states Military reconstruction had ended, and business as usual went on in the South; while life for blacks got worse
  38. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) Southern Blacks During and After Reconstruction After the war, former slaves were thrust into an ambiguous state of freedom Many set out in search of family members The Freedmen’s Bureau helped them find jobs and housing, while providing some money and food to those in need Also established schools (even universities) Had little impact once military reconstruction ended Most blacks became SHARECROPPERS Sharecropping: farmers traded a portion of their crop in return for the right to work someone else’s land This kept poor farmers in a state similar to slavery