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Abraham Maslow

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Abraham Maslow

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  1. Abraham Maslow

  2. Abraham Maslow “She kissed back and then life began.”

  3. Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Actualization Needs Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  4. Need Hierarchy Theory • 1) Behavior is dominated by the needs that are unfulfilled • 2) Individuals will satisfy the most basic needs first and move up the hierarchy • 3) Basic needs have higher priority than higher needs

  5. Group Activity Self-Actualization Needs Where are you? What are you doing to achieve the needs associated with this level? Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  6. Group Activity • 1. I do not feel ashamed of any of my emotions. • 2. I do not feel I must do what others expect of me. • 3. I believe that people are essentially good and can be trusted. • 4. I feel free to be angry at those I love. • 5. It is not necessary that others approve of what I do.

  7. Group Activity • 6. I accept my own weaknesses. • 7. I can like people without having to approve of them. • 8. I do not fear failure • 9. I do not avoid attempts to analyze and simplify complex domains. • 10. It is better to be yourself than to be popular.

  8. Group Activity • 11. I have a mission in life to which I feel especially dedicated. • 12. I can express my feelings even when they result in undesirable consequences. • 13. I feel responsible to help others. • 14. I am not bothered by fears of being inadequate. • 15. I am loved because I give love

  9. Scores • Men • M = 45.02 , SD = 4.95 • W = 46.07, SD = 4.79

  10. Self-Actualization • “Time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time” • What you are doing when you are not attempting to satisfy another need • Your “true” nature • “to become everything one is capable of becoming”

  11. What if. . . . • You won a large sum of money? • What would you do? • Would this make you happy?

  12. Are you happy?

  13. Are you happy?

  14. Why to we value material goods? Stuff Most common response to “what will improve your life” More money!

  15. Is this true? • 1950 – present • Violent crime • Family breakdown • Psychosomatic complaints • Depression • Suicides • Happiness has stayed the same (30% very happy) • Although income has doubled!

  16. Is this true? • Wealthiest vs. “average” incomes • Very little difference in “happiness”

  17. Is this true? • Lottery winners vs. victims struck with severe medical problems • Happiness goes back to before

  18. Why? • Habituated to money • How much money would you need to fulfill your dreams? • Under $30,000 • $50,000 • Over $100,000 • $250,000 • Makes evolutionary sense

  19. Why? • Energy gets focused on material goods • Loses sense of other important aspects of life

  20. Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Actualization Needs Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  21. Achieving Happiness • Happiness is a mental state • Achieving it can be done via cognitive means

  22. Questionnaire

  23. Flow • Self-Actualization and “Flow” • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi • Optimal Experiences • Doing something for its own sake, even though it may have no consequences outside itself • Moment-to-moment CS experience • Examples?

  24. Flow • Engaged deeply in an activity 1) Know clearly what they have to do moment by moment 2) Immediate feedback 3) Tremendous concentration 4) Little distractibility 5) Elevated mood 6) Time passes quickly

  25. Flow • How do you find flow? • Engage in activates that are challenging • Not too easy • Not too hard

  26. Flow • Happiness • Not felt while in flow • Feel on reflection • Important, but not sufficient for happiness

  27. Need Hierarchy Theory Self-Actualization Needs Self-Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  28. Flow and Self-Actualization • Self-Actualization • What you do when you are not attempting to satisfy a need • “Time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time” • Peak Experiences • Flow • Optimal Experience • Done for its own sake, even though it may have no consequences outside itself • Flow is what “self-actualization” feels like

  29. George Kelly

  30. Activity • Questionnaire • 1) Put names on the top • 2) For row #1 • Look at the three people marked with a “O”. Determine how two of these people are different than the third. • Mark these two people with a check mark. • Write how they are different (one or two words) in the “similarity pole” box. Write how the third is different in the “contrast pole” box. • 3) Repeat for each row • 4) Score everyone else in each row with a check mark • How do you describe people • Commonly use Constructs that are learned • Start to see the world a different way

  31. Every Person is a Scientist • We have our own theories about human behavior • We have constructs that we think are important • Not as “scientific” as traditional science • It is our VIEW of reality that is important • Not reality itself

  32. Construct • Our constructs determine how we interpret an event • Constructs are bipolar • What is the other pole is also subjective • Thus two people may see the same event differently

  33. s • Charlie Sincere Insincere • Willy Sincere Morally degenerate

  34. Charlie Sincere Insincere • Willy Sincere Morally degenerate

  35. If they see Veruca Salt do something that is not sincere

  36. If they see Veruca Salt do something that is not sincere Will think she is insincere React with mild disapproval

  37. If they see Veruca Salt do something that is not sincere Will think she is morally degenerate Will be angry and upset

  38. Constructive Alternativism • All of us are capable of changing our interpretation of events • Our constructs • Behavior is never determined

  39. Research • Using RCRT • Can understand constructs person uses to see the world • Can understand how a person sees self • Look at the check marks (and missing check marks) • How a person sees self in relation to others • Who do you think you are most similar too? • Are you similar to anyone? • Look at number of check marks in the self column

  40. Research • Cognitive Complexity • Did you use different constructs across all people? • Cognitive simplicity • Do not differentiate how you perceive others • Cognitive complexity • Highly different views of others

  41. Research • Cognitive Complexity • Differentiate among many different events in the environments – should be able to make more accurate judgments

  42. Research • Cognitive Complexity • Better able to anticipate school stresses • Make more realistic occupational choices • Better able to predict the behavior of others

  43. Review • Freud • Key ideas • Psychic Determinism • Unconscious • Internal Structure • Psychic Conflict • Mental Energy • Doctrine of Opposites • Parts of the mind

  44. Review • Freud • Psychosexual stages • Defense mechanisms • Denial • Repression • Reaction Formation • Projection • Rationalization • Intellectualization • Regression • Sublimation

  45. Review • Freud • Parapraxes • Humor

  46. Review • Neo-Freudians • Carl Jung • Archetypes • Collective Unconscious • Alfred Adler • Feelings of inferiority • Striving for superiority • Importance of birth order

  47. Review • Neo-Freudians • Karen Horney • Anxiety • Coping with anxiety (types) • Erick Erikson • Eight stages of development