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  1. Personality Psychology, Unit #5 Oswayo Valley High School

  2. What is personality? Do you have personality? Do you haveapersonality? If so, what type of personality? Is personality the same as character?

  3. Personality • A person’s long-lasting patterns of behavior • An individual’s unique way of thinking, feeling and acting

  4. Our study of PERSONALITY emphasizes the major explanations of personality development. Five theories dominate: The Four Humors Phrenology Biological Freudian Trait Theory Each has its own strengths and weaknesses; none can be considered exclusively “correct”.

  5. Theory 1: The Four Humors Galen divided personality into four types of temperaments, based in part, on the level of body fluids and relation to the “elements” Sanguine Choleric Phlegmatic Melancholic

  6. Body: “Blood” Element: Air

  7. Body: “Yellow Bile” Element: Fire

  8. Body: “Phlegm” Element: Water

  9. Body: “Black Bile” Element: Earth

  10. Theory 2: Phrenology Phrenology “studies the relationships between a person’s character and the morphology of the skull.” • Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) laid the foundations for “modern” phrenology on these principles: • That moral and intellectual faculties are innate  • That their exercise or manifestation depends on organization  • That the brain is the organ of all the propensities, sentiments and faculties  • That the brain is composed of many particular organs as there are propensities, sentiments and faculties which differ essentially from each other.  • That the form of the head or cranium represents the form of the brain, and thus reflects the relative development of the brain organs.

  11. Different zones on the skull paralleled “faculties” of personality and character as found in the brain. Through the process of “flexing”—altering the shape of the skull—one’s personality could be changed.

  12. Theory 3: Biological • William Sheldon (1898-1977) theorized a person’s personality relates to his body “type”. • Did his work relied heavily on correlation rather than causation? • What happens if a person’s body type changes? • How did he establish a quantitative foundation? • Could he have been right in spite of the scientific flaws?

  13. Ectomorph Body Type Lean Delicate Slight of muscle Think “geek” stereotype Personality Traits Artistic Sensitive Apprehensive Introverted

  14. Mesomorph Body Type Muscular Think “buff” stereotype Personality Traits Dynamic Courageous Energetic Active Assertive Risk-taker

  15. Endomorph Body Type Plump Buxom Developed visceral structure Think “fat” stereotype Personality Traits Tolerant Relaxed Love comfort/luxury Pleasant Extraverted

  16. Sheldon’s work makes for interesting discussion not in the legitimacy of assigning personality based on body type, but rather in the tendency of accepting body type based on personality. Does our personality allow us to accept who we are? Do we seek to alter our physical body to satisfy a personality need?

  17. Eating Disorders physical responses to personality needs • Key features of anorexia nervosa: • refusal to maintain weight; • intense fear of gaining weight; and • a distorted body image Anorexia Nervosa

  18. Jeremy Gillitzer (1971-2010)

  19. Eating Disorders physical responses to personality needs • People dealing with bulimia share the psychological needs of anorexics, but differ in that they • eat a lot of food in a short amount of time (binging) and • prevent weight gain by getting rid of the food (purging) Bulimia Nervosa

  20. Psychological issues influence weight gain as well as weight loss. • Some people eat to fit in socially • Some people eat to lower stress—it “comforts” you • Some people gain weight because they are • embarrassed to go to the gym • Some people eat to combat depression • Some people compare with others to justify their • body Weight gain

  21. Supplements Another means of changing body to conform to “body image” by psychology. • Steroids, synthetic substances chemically similar to testosterone, can be classified into two broad categories: • Anabolic: help users to build muscle tissue • Androgenic: help to users appear more masculine Steroids

  22. Picture Credits Thai Mask Galen bust Phrenology head frame Phrenology Head Oprah Winfrey Anorexia Nervosa mirror Jeremy Gillitzer Anorexic How bulimia effects Fat man on scales Negative effects steroids Steroid back

  23. Picture Credits Femalesteroid

  24. Selected References Galens Temperaments Phrenology Phrenology William Sheldon (body types) William Sheldon (somatoform) Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa