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Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men

Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men

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Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men

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  1. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men I. Recap: Work in Flux, 1840 II. Labor Republicanism A. Ideology B. Economic Expression C. Cultural Expression D. Political Expression E. Paranoid Aspects III. Workers and the G.O.P. A. Politics B. Policies IV. The Civil War and Reconstruction A. Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight B. Reconstructing Labor C. Dividing the Working Class D. Unfinished Revolution

  2. Recap • Market revolution • In the North, wage labor replaces servitude, slavery, craft apprenticeship • Slavery grows stronger in the South

  3. Free Labor Ideology • Nobility of work • Protestant work ethic • Freedom of Contract • Upward mobility • Political participation • Anti-slavery

  4. Economic • Unions • Between 1834 and 1836, number of members grows from 26K to 300K • Between 1833 and 1837, 175 strikes • Form National Trades’ Union Charter, United Order American Mechanics, 1853

  5. Cultural • Religion offers: • Alternative status • Advancement • Temperance allows men to show their manly discipline and independence. Mariners’ temperance pledge, 1840s

  6. Political • Jacksonian values • Economic expansion creates opportunity • Eliminate special privileges that bar mobility • Expand individual rights to white men without property

  7. The Dark Side • Anti-Masonry • Murder of Wm. Morgan • Nativism • Know Nothing Party • Racism • Blackface minstrelsy Song sheet with minstrel, 1850s

  8. Political Realignment • Slavery shatters Democrats and Whigs • Albany-Richmond alliance • New parties emerge • Free Soil Party (1848-54) • Know Nothings (1854-6) • Republican Party (1854-) • Absorbs Whigs, Know Nothings, and Free Soilers • Becomes prime exponent of free labor ideology

  9. Policies • Land • Homesteading • Land grant colleges • Industry • Tariffs • Internal improvements • Anti-slavery

  10. Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight • Refugee slaves • Poor Southern white resistance • Pres. Andrew Johnson • New York City Draft Riots NY Governor Seymour addresses the rioters

  11. Reconstructing Labor Southern industrial school for freedpeople, 1866

  12. Dividing the Working Class • Opposition to slavery was not equivalent to racial egalitarianism • Postwar politicians exploit racial resentment to break Radical power

  13. Unfinished Revolution