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History of Extinctions PowerPoint Presentation
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History of Extinctions

History of Extinctions

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History of Extinctions

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  1. Superposition Original horizontally History of Extinctions Original continuity Steno’s laws

  2. Bullard Fit Glossopteris leaf Pre-Wegener view of the world

  3. Gondwanaland rock sequence Du Toit’s Gondwanaland Late Paleozoic glaciers and flow

  4. Earth x-section Upper Earth x-section

  5. Polar wander paths Mid-Atlantic Ridge Age of the ocean floor

  6. Modern plate configuration Mantle convection model

  7. Transform margin Late Paleozoic triple junctions Divergent margin

  8. Subduction zone Suture zone

  9. Rock cycle Rock environments

  10. Water flux in 1000 km3 Evaporation/Transperation 380 Precipitation 380 Infiltration <1 Groundwater <1 Runoff 36 The water cycle Coriolis effect Hypothetical atmospheric convection Tilt of the Earth and seasons

  11. Modern atmospheric winds Modern climate belts Rain shadows

  12. Modern ocean circulation Upwelling and bottom waters

  13. Penn. U.S. Sloss sequences Haq sea-level curve

  14. Oxygen Isotope cycles Oxygen isotope record Sloss cycles Ocean floor

  15. Short-term carbon cycle Carbon burial Historic carbon ratios

  16. Long-term carbon cycle Greenhouse feedback Historic atmospheric CO2

  17. Charles Darwin Modern sloth Fossil sloth Galapagos Tortoise

  18. Gradual (12ma) Jurassic uncoiling of Gryphaea Slow, then rapid evolution of bowfin Historic extinctions

  19. Evolution of the Horse Convergence of Marsupials and Placentals Eocene adaptive radiation of mammals

  20. Classification by trophic structure Marine food web

  21. Vertebrate cladogram Vertebrate phylogeny The six Kingdoms

  22. Modern ripples Organic-rich planar beds Laminae <1cm Thin bed 1-10cm Medium bed 10-30cm Thick bed 30-100cm Massive bed >100cm Bed thickness catagories Mud cracks Dune migration, and oxidized cross-bedded sandstone

  23. Overview of Sedimentary Environments

  24. Lake laminations Alluvial Fans, Death Valley Playa Lake Death Valley Jruassic Eolian Navajo Sandstone, Arizona

  25. U.S. Ice-margin lakes Peak Wisconsin Glaciation, 18ky Glacial Deposits, New Zealand Pleistocene Till, Ca Proterozoic varves, Canada

  26. Braided river, Alaska Channel Bar Meandering river Meandering river environments

  27. Delta progradation Mississippi Delta environments Swamp or Marsh Distributary channels Prodelta mud Mouth bar sand Interdistributary bay

  28. Marsh, Mississippi delta Beach environments

  29. Reef-dominant carbonate shelf Devonian Stromatoporoid Reef Bahamas platform/ramp

  30. Pelagic mud Flutes on basal scour Rippled sand Laminated sand Massive sand Turbidite structures/Bouma sequence Great Valley fan turbidites

  31. World abyssal plain deposits White Cliffs of Dover, and the Cretaceous epiric sea of northern Europe

  32. Planktonic foraminifer Archaeobacteria in hot spring Cyanobacteria filament Stromatolite

  33. Lepidodendron (a) and Sigillaria (b) Lycopods Penn. lowland forest Sphenopsid (horsetail rush) Sphenopsid (Calamities)

  34. Cnidaria body plan Sponge body plan Modern coral (scleractinian) Modern lacy/fan bryozoan

  35. Modern brachiopods Mollusk body plans

  36. Trilobites Regular ecinoid/ Sea urchin Modern crinoid

  37. Conodont fossil and possible conodont animal Vertebrate cladogram Terrestrial Climate belts

  38. Continental environments Marine environments Facies stacking During T/R cycle Transgression Vs regression during eustatic rise Sedimentary environments

  39. Lithologic units of the Sauk transgression in the Grand Canyon Sloss’s sequences

  40. Silurian graptolite zones Biostratigraphic constraint of Silurian Period Geochronologic Vs chronostratigraphic units

  41. 700ka Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Volcano Varves in Permian Castile Evaporites,Texas Quaternary oxygen isotope stages