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Open Source Integrated Library System

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  1. Open Source Integrated Library System A Reality Check Marshall BreedingDirector for Innovative Technologies and Research Vanderbilt University http://staffweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/breeding http://www.librarytechnology.org/

  2. Program Description One of the major movements in the library automation arena involves the explosive interest in open source ILS. Open ILSs now stand as viable options for libraries. This workshop will present open source ILS options in the context of the overall library automation industry and pose the questions that librarians need to ask as they make decisions between open source and traditionally licensed automation systems. While open source presents exciting opportunities, it’s important to go forward with realistic expectations. Attend this workshop to explore the options.

  3. Open Source Software Broad Trends

  4. Open Source Infrastructure

  5. IT Infrastructure • Linux • Apache • Lucene • Solr • MySql • PostgreSQL

  6. Web Server deployment Source: Netcraft www.netcraft.com

  7. Operating System Market Share • IDC figures for OS on new server shipments 3Q 2007: • Windows Server: 67.1% • Linux: 22.8% • Slight gain for Windows/loss for Linux over previous quarter

  8. Trends • Open Source Software well established in for general IT infrastructure • Linux emerging as the dominant flavor of Unix • Commercial options continue to prosper

  9. Open Source Library Software (non-ILS)

  10. General Infrastructure Components • Index Data • YAZ toolkit • Z39.50 • SRU/W • Zebra XML Search Engine • Metaproxy • “metasearching proxy front end server for integrating access to multiple back-end Z39.50-compliant databases” • MasterKey federated search engine

  11. Open Search Federated Search

  12. LibraryFind • Open source federated search • Built-in OpenURL resolver • 3-teired caching • Customizable interface • Developed by the University of Oregon Libraries

  13. dbWiz • Open source federated search utility • Developed at Simon Frasier University

  14. Masterkey • Developed by Index Data • Highly optimized, multithreaded searching of many databases • Faceted browsing of results • Demo: masterkey.indexdata.com

  15. Digital Repository Applications

  16. Fedora • Open source digital repository engine • Not an out-of-the-box solution • Many organizations have developed their own interfaces and applications built on top of Fedora • VTLS Vital product based on Fedora • Supported by Fedora Commons • http://www.fedora-commons.org/

  17. Dspace • Institutional Repository Application • Originally developed by Hewlett Packard and MIT • http://www.dspace.org • Widely deployed by Universities for institutional repository projects

  18. Keystone • Developed by Index Data • Open source digital repository application • Digital content management • Federated search • OAI harvesting • Link resolver services

  19. Open source discovery products AKA: Next Generation Catalogs

  20. VUFind – Villanova University Based on Apache Solr search toolkit http://www.vufind.org/

  21. eXtensible Catalog • University of Rochester – River Campus Libraries • Financial support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation • http://www.extensiblecatalog.info/ • Just received a second round of funding from Mellon • $283,000 (April 2006) • $749,000 (October 2007) • Wider institutional participation

  22. Scriblio • Formerly WPopac • OPAC based on WordPress

  23. A Mandate for Openness

  24. Opportunities for Openness • Open Source • Alternative to traditionally licensed software • Open Systems • Software that doesn’t hold data hostage

  25. More Open Systems • Pressure for traditionally licensed products to become more open • APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let libraries access and manipulate their data outside of delivered software • A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give libraries more flexibility and control in accessing data and services and in extending functionality than having access to the source code. • Customer access to APIs does not involve as much risk to breaking core system functions, avoids issues of version management and code forking associated with open source models.

  26. More Open Systems • Pressure for traditionally licensed products to become more open • APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let libraries access and manipulate their data outside of delivered software • A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give libraries more flexibility and control in accessing data and services and in extending functionality than having access to the source code. • Customer access to APIs does not involve as much risk to breaking core system functions, avoids issues of version management and code forking associated with open source models.

  27. A Continuum of Openness

  28. Closed Systems End User Interfaces: No programmable Access to the system. Captive to the user Interfaces supplied by the developer Programmer access: Acquisitions Cataloging Circulation Functional modules: Data Stores: Staff Interfaces:

  29. Standard RDBM Systems Database administrators can access data stores involved with the system: Read-only? Read/write? Developer shares database schema End User Interfaces: Programmer access: Acquisitions Cataloging Circulation Functional modules: Data Stores: Staff Interfaces:

  30. Open Source Model End User Interfaces: Programmer access: Acquisitions Cataloging Circulation All aspects of the system available to inspection and modification. Functional modules: Data Stores: Staff Interfaces:

  31. Open API Model End User Interfaces: Programmer access: Core application closed. Third party developers code against the published APIs or RDBMS tables. Acquisitions Cataloging Circulation Functional modules: Published APIs Data Stores: Staff Interfaces:

  32. Open Source / Open API Model End User Interfaces: Programmer access: Core application closed. Third party developers code against the published APIs or RDBMS tables. Acquisitions Cataloging Circulation Functional modules: PublishedAPIs Data Stores: Staff Interfaces:

  33. Depth of Openness • Evaluate level of access to a products data stores and functional elements: • Open source vs Traditional licenses • Some traditional vendors have well established API implementations • SirsiDynix Unicorn (API available to authorized customer sites that take training program) • Ex Libris: consistent deployment of APIs in major products, recent strategic initiative: “Open Platform Program” • Innovative Interfaces: Patron API

  34. Universal open APIs? • Some progress on API to support discovery layer interfaces, but no comprehensive framework yet. • Many industry protocols work like APIs: • Z39.50, SRU/W, NCIP, OAI-PMH, OpenURL, etd • It would be ideal if there were an open set of APIs that were implemented by all automation system products. • Third party components and add-ons would then work across all products. • DLF ILS-Discovery Interface protocol. Targets interoperability between ILS and new genre of interfaces • AKA: Berkeley Accords

  35. Opportunity out of the Upheavals • More options • Commercial + Open Source • More vendors • New open source support companies provide new competition • More library involvement • Libraries re-energized to make significant contributions to the body of library automation software • Traditionally licensed and open source automation systems will co-exist. We have an interest in the success of both alternatives.

  36. Open Source in the ILS arena Products and trends

  37. Open Source ILS enters the mainstream • Earlier era of pioneering efforts to ILS shifting into one where open source alternatives fall in the mainstream • Off-the-shelf, commercially supported product available • Still a minority player, but gaining ground

  38. Tracking the Open Source Movement Through Marshall’s articles and columns

  39. March 2002: Open source ILS: still a distant possibility • “I do not, however, expect to see such victories of Open Source software over commercial products in the integrated library system arena. Both broad historical and recent trends argue against a movement toward libraries creating their own library automation systems—either in an Open Source or closed development process.” • Early open source efforts included Avanti, Pytheas, OpenBook, and Koha • 3 out of 4 now defunct Source: Information Technologies and Libraries, Mar 2002

  40. Oct 2002: An update on Open Source ILS • “the open source systems such as the three mentioned above are but a small blip on the radar. Compared to the thousands of libraries that acquire automation systems from commercial vendors each year, the handful that use open source systems cannot yet be noted as a trend. “ • Discussed Koha, LearningAccess ILS, Avanti MicroLCS Source: Information Today, Oct 2002 http://www.librarytechnology.org/ltg-displaytext.pl?RC=9975

  41. … then the world changed

  42. Mar 2007: On update on Open Source ILS “As I look back at my 2002 column on open source ILS, I see that I mentioned both Koha and the Learning-Access ILS. Over this 4-year time period I have seen Koha usage increase from a single library system to two or more library systems plus a few individual public libraries and a large number of other small ones. The LearningAccess ILS is used in 15 libraries. Evergreen currently represents the largest group of libraries sharing a single open source ILS implementation. Over the same time period, well over 40,000 libraries have purchased a commercial ILS. So, relative to the entire library automation arena, those using an open source ILS still represent a minuscule portion of the whole. That said, conditions are ripe for a more rapid adoption of open source ILS than we have seen in the past. “ Source: Computers in Libraries, Mar 2007 http://www.librarytechnology.org/ltg-displaytext.pl?RC=12445

  43. Mar 2008: Making a business case for Open Source ILS We’re living in a phase of library automation characterized by an increased interest in open source-not just in back-end infrastructure components but also in the mission-critical business applications such as the integrated library system. Open source library automation systems, including Koha and Evergreen, have been propelled into the limelight. Recent survey data fails to corroborate broad interest that libraries are ready to adopt open source ILS. The success of early adopters of open source ILS now serve as a catalyst for others. Paths now exist with more mature systems and professional support options. As the open source movement matures, these system will need to compete on their own merits and not solely on a philosophical preference. Source: Computers in Libraries, Mar 2008 http://www.librarytechnology.org/ltg-displaytext.pl?RC=13134

  44. Apr 2008: Automation System Marketplace “Last year marked the launch of the open source ILS into the mainstream; it received major attention in the press and at library conferences. From a business perspective, open source ILS contracts represented a very small portion of the library automation economy. The success of early adopters' implementations has already diminished skepticism. Many indicators suggest that open source ILS contracts will displace larger percentages of traditional licensing models in each subsequent year. Source: “Automation System Marketplace: Opportunity out of Turmoil” April 1, 2008

  45. An industry in turmoil • Disruptions and business decisions to narrow options have fueled the open source movement • Benefit to libraries in having additional options • Traditionally licensed and open source ILS alternatives will coexist in the ILS arena

  46. Open Source vs Traditional licensing • Taking sides? • Both viable options • Avoid philosophical preference • Which best supports the missions of libraries? • Which approach helps libraries become better libraries

  47. Current Open Source ILS Product Options

  48. Koha: first Open Source ILS • Koha + Index Data Zebra = Koha ZOOM • Components: • Perl • Apache • MySql • Zebra: search engine option for larger installations

  49. Libraries committed to Koha • 300+ libraries • Horowhenua Library Trust • Nelsonville Public Library • Athens County, OH • Crawford County Federated Library System • 10 Libraries in PA • Howard County, MD • Service area population: 266300 • 4.7 million circulation transactions in 2006 • 1 million volumes • Central Kansas Library System • Santa Cruz Public Library • Central, 9 branches • 2 million volumes • Near East University Library • 1.5 million volumes

  50. Koha