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TESTING EFFICIENCY OF STORAGE IN THE SUBSURFACE: FRIO BRINE PILOT EXPERIMENT Texas Gulf Coast PowerPoint Presentation
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TESTING EFFICIENCY OF STORAGE IN THE SUBSURFACE: FRIO BRINE PILOT EXPERIMENT Texas Gulf Coast

TESTING EFFICIENCY OF STORAGE IN THE SUBSURFACE: FRIO BRINE PILOT EXPERIMENT Texas Gulf Coast

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TESTING EFFICIENCY OF STORAGE IN THE SUBSURFACE: FRIO BRINE PILOT EXPERIMENT Texas Gulf Coast

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  1. TESTING EFFICIENCY OF STORAGE IN THE SUBSURFACE: FRIO BRINE PILOT EXPERIMENTTexas Gulf Coast Susan Hovorka * Christine Doughty** and Mark Holtz* *Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School of Geosciences University of Texas at Austin ** Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

  2. Frio Brine Pilot Research Team • Funded by US DOE National Energy Technology Lab: Karen Cohen/Charles Byrer • Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School, The University of Texas at Austin: Susan Hovorka, Mark Holtz, Shinichi Sakurai, Seay Nance, Joseph Yeh, Paul Knox, Khaled Faoud • Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, (Geo-Seq): Larry Myer, Tom Daley, Barry Freifeld, Rob Trautz, Christine Doughty, Sally Benson, Karsten Pruess, Curt Oldenburg, Jennifer Lewicki, Ernie Major, Mike Hoversten, Mac Kennedy; Don Lippert • Oak Ridge National Lab: Dave Cole, Tommy Phelps • Lawrence Livermore National Lab: Kevin Knauss, Jim Johnson • Alberta Research Council: Bill Gunter, John Robinson • Texas American Resources: Don Charbula, David Hargiss • Sandia Technologies: Dan Collins, “Spud” Miller, David Freeman; Phil Papadeau • BP: Charles Christopher, Mike Chambers • Schlumberger: T. S. Ramakrishna and others • SEQUIRE – National Energy Technology Lab: Curt White, Rod Diehl, Grant Bromhall, Brian Stratizar, Art Wells • University of West Virginia: Henry Rausch • USGS: Yousif Kharaka, Bill Evans, Evangelos Kakauros, Jim Thorsen • Praxair: Joe Shine, Dan Dalton • Australian CO2CRC (CSRIO): Kevin Dodds • Core Labs: Paul Martin and others

  3. How can we demonstrate that geologic storage is an effective method of reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere? • Demonstrate that CO2 can be injected into a brine formation without adverse health, safety, or environmental effects • Determine the subsurface distribution of injected CO2 using a diverse monitoring technologies • Demonstrate validity of conceptual and numerical models • Develop experience necessary for success of large-scale CO2 injection experiments

  4. Ozone non attainment Selected oil field that could benefit from EOR Existing CO2 pipeline Frio Brine Pilot Sources (dot size =release) Refineries and chemical plants Electric power plants Future CO2 pipeline Saline Formations Focus on the Gulf Coast

  5. Status of Frio Brine Pilot 1) site selection, with general characterization and scoping modeling; (2) geologic characterization; (3) modeling and experimental-design refinement; (4) permitting; (5) site preparation; (6) detailed site characterization; (7) baseline monitoring; (8) injection and syninjection monitoring; 9/27 (9) postinjection monitoring: 10/04 to 3/05

  6. Site Setting

  7. Photo: SDH BEG

  8. Observation Well Injection Well

  9. Frio Brine Pilot • Injection interval: 24-m-thick, mineralogically complex Oligocene reworked fluvial sandstone, porosity 24%, Permeability 2-3 Darcys • Seals  numerous thick shales, small fault block • Depth 1,500 m • Brine-rock system, no hydrocarbons • 190 bar Injection interval Oil production

  10. Reservoir Model Fault planes Porosity Monitoring well Injection well 100m 500 m Monitoring injection and monitoring

  11. Core has been slabbed while still frozen, and samples cut for petrophysical, petrographic, and geochemical analysis

  12. Photo: S.D. Hovorka, BEG

  13. Injection well Observation well Open Hole logs Top A ss Top B ss Top C ss Proposed injection zone

  14. Log Permeability Calibrated with Plug Permeability Injection Zone Log Interpretation, Shinichi Sakurai

  15. P-Wave P-Wave S-wave Frio Pre-Injection Geophysics VSP - Designed for monitoring and imaging - 8 Explosive Shot Points (100 – 1500 m offsets) - 80 – 240 3C Sensors (1.5 – 7.5 m spacing) Reflection Denser spacing in reservoir interval Cross Well -Designed for monitoring and CO2 saturation estimation - P and S Seismic and EM - > 75 m coverage @ 1.5 m Spacing (orbital-vibrator seismic source, 3C geophone sensor) - Dual Frequency E.M. From Tom Daley, LBNL

  16. How Modeling and Monitoring will Assess CO2 Performance Residual gas saturation of 5% • Modeling has identified variables which appear to control CO2 injection and post injection migration. • Measurements made over a short time frame and small distance will confirm the correct value for these variables • Better conceptualized and calibrated models will be used to develop larger scale longer time frame injections Residual gas saturation of 30% TOUGH2 simulations C. Doughty LBNL

  17. Capillary Character Demonstrates Residual Saturation 160 140 120 Drainage, wetting phase being replaced by non wetting phase 100 80 Capillary pressure (psi) Imbibition, wetting phase replacing nonwetting phase 60 40 Sgrm All porous media Swirr 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Wetting-phase “water” saturation (percent)

  18. Pore-Scale Gas TrappingSnap-off • Oh and Slattery, 1976 • Snap-off model Pore radius Aspect ratio = Pore throat radius Capillary force cause non-wetting phase to snap-off into pore

  19. Residual Saturation- key parameter

  20. Impact of Residual Saturation on CO2 Distribution Case 1 Case 2

  21. Frio Brine Pilot Summary • MMV demonstration in high permeability sandstone • Comparison of diverse MMV technologies • Better understanding of CO2 behavior though model matching • Invitation for participation • Updates: www.gulfcoastcarbon.org