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Monstrous Mutations

Monstrous Mutations

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Monstrous Mutations

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  1. Monstrous Mutations Genetics Lab Activity

  2. Types of mUtations Review • SubstitutionA substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another (i.e., a change in a single “chemical letter” such as switching an A to a G). Such a substitution could: • Change a codon to one that encodes a different amino acid and cause a small change in the protein produced. For example, sickle cell anemia is caused by a substitution in the beta-hemoglobin gene, which alters a single amino acid in the protein produced. • Change a codon to one that encodes the same amino acid and causes no change in the protein produced. These are called silent mutations. • Change an amino-acid-coding codon to a single “stop” codon and cause an incomplete protein. This can have serious effects since the incomplete protein probably won’t function.

  3. Types of Mutations Review • InsertionInsertions are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA. • DeletionDeletions are mutations in which a section of DNA is lost, or deleted. • Frame shiftSince protein-coding DNA is divided into codons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed. These changes are called frame shifts.For example, consider the sentence, “The fat cat sat.” Each word represents a codon. If we delete the first letter and parse the sentence in the same way, it doesn’t make sense. In frame shifts, a similar error occurs at the DNA level, causing the codons to be parsed incorrectly. This usually generates proteins that are as useless as “hefatcats at” is uninformative

  4. How to become a Monster!!! • You are a group of Skittle loving monsters! Unfortunately, there has been some toxic waste dumped in your water source that has caused a lot of strange mutations within your population! • You will work in groups of 3. Each “monster” in your group will share your genetic mutation. One person from your group will draw a letter to determine what mutation your group will have. This letter will also tell you where your “home station” is. This is where your storage cup will be placed. • Two people in your group will have the mutation, the third will be responsible for prepping the monsters and guiding them if they get is a particularly sticky situation!!!

  5. mutations

  6. Instructions: • Prep 2 monsters according to the mutation instructions. • You will start at your designated home station. I will start the timer. • There will be two places to get food, my front lab desk and my filing cabinets. You will need to go to ONE location to retrieve 10 skittles and take them to your designated storage area. • Once you have dropped off your food at your designated location, return to your home station and wait 2 minutes (your extra person will be responsible for keeping track of the time). • After 2 minutes have passed, retrieve your food and bring it back to you home station. You will then need to consume all 10 of your skittles (5 per monster). • Once you have consumed your skittles, tell me and I will record your time on the board.

  7. Conclusion Questions • Answer the following questions in your lab notebook, ask for a stamp when you are done: • How did your mutation effect your ability to collect food? • Looking at your classmates times, were there any mutations that seemed to be advantageous to those monsters? • Does a mutation have to act on the genotype of phenotype of an organism in order to effect the abilities of that organism? • Explain how these mutations could effect the population of monsters as a whole if they are passed down over multiple generations.