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Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 1: Mendel’s Work
Section 1- Objectives: • To describe Mendel’s genetics experiments • To identify the factors that control the inheritance of traits in organisms • To explain how geneticists use symbols to represent alleles.
Vocab • 1. traitA characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
4. purebredAn organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent.
5. geneA segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.
7. dominant alleleAn allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
8. recessive alleleAn allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.
9. hybridAn organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait.
Notes Gregor Mendel • 1. _______________________ is called the “father of genetics”
2. Mendel used peas because: • A. _________________________ • B. _________________________ They have many traits that exist in only 2 forms Garden peas produce large numbers of offspring in one generation so it is easy to collect large amounts of data to analyze
3. Traits are controlled by _________________ of _____________ inheritance genes
one • 4. Organisms inherit ______ allele from _________ parent. each
5. Some alleles are ____________________and others are __________________________. dominant recessive
Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 2: Probability & Genetics
Section 2 -Objectives: • To describe the principles of probability and how Mendel applied them to inheritance • To state how geneticists use Punnett squares • To explain the meaning of the terms phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, and codominance.
Vocab • 10. probabilityThe likelihood that a particular event will occur.
11. Punnett squareA chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
13. genotypeAn organism’s genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
16. codominanceA condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
Notes • 1. Probability is the ___________________ that a ____________________ will occur. likelihood particular event
Mendel • 2. _____________________ was the first scientist to recognize that the ________________________ of ________________________ can be used to predict the result of genetic crosses. principles probability
3. Geneticists use Punnett squares to: • A. • B. Show all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross Determine the probability of a particular outcome
Phenotype • 4. _________________________ is the physical appearance, while ________________________ is the _______________________ make-up. genotype Genetic makeup
5. Punnett Square practice: • B-Blue • b-red • Genotype: • Phenotype: b B BB Bb B Bb bb b 1 BB: 2Bb: 1bb 3 Blue, 1 red
5. Punnett Square practice: • G- Green • g-Yellow • Genotype: • Phenotype: g G Gg gg g Gg gg g • 2 Gg: 2gg • 2 Green: 2 Yellow
Your turn. Practice sheet. • Independent and Silent • Refer to your notes. • Go over as a group.
Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 3: The Cell and Inheritance
Section 3: The Cell and Inheritance • To describe the role of chromosomes in inheritance • To identify and describe the events that occur during meiosis
17. meiosisThe process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
Notes • 1. Sex cells have exactly ____________ the number of chromosomes as ____________ cells. half other
2. The chromosome theory of inheritance states: • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtchromo.mov Genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes
3. During meiosis, the chromosome: • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtmeiosi.mov • See pg. In text The chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells. The resulting sex cells have only have half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.
Genes • 4. ____________________ are located on chromosomes.
5. Our bodies have ________ pairs of chromosomes that contain over __________ genes. 23 60,000
Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 4: The DNA Connection
Section 4: The DNA Connection -Objectives: • To explain the term “genetic code”: • To describe the process by which a cell produces proteins • To describe different types of mutations and how they affect an organism.
17. messenger RNARNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.
18. transfer RNARNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain.
Notes • 1. The main function of genes is to: Control the production of proteins in the organism’s cells. Proteins help to determine the size, shape, and many other traits in an organism.
order • 2. The _________ of _______________ bases along a _____________ forms a genetic code that specifies what type of ___________ will be produced. • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtgeneti.mov • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtprotei.mov nitrogen gene protein
mutation • 3. A _____________ is a change in a ___________ or ____________________. • DNA mutations: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ajRf8yMBe0 gene chromosome
4. Mutations can be: • A. ____________ and an example would be ______________. • B. ____________ and an example would be ______________. • C. ______________________ and an example would be ______________. Harmful cancer Helpful Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Neither harmful or helpful A white buffalo color on a farm (versus a white buffalo color in the wild)