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Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity. Section 1: Mendel’s Work. Section 1- Objectives:. To describe Mendel’s genetics experiments To identify the factors that control the inheritance of traits in organisms To explain how geneticists use symbols to represent alleles. Vocab.

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Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity


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    1. Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 1: Mendel’s Work

    2. Section 1- Objectives: • To describe Mendel’s genetics experiments • To identify the factors that control the inheritance of traits in organisms • To explain how geneticists use symbols to represent alleles.

    3. Vocab • 1. traitA characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.

    4. 2. heredityThe passing of traits from parents to offspring.

    5. 3. geneticsThe scientific study of heredity.

    6. 4. purebredAn organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent.

    7. 5. geneA segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.

    8. 6. allelesThe different forms of a gene.

    9. 7. dominant alleleAn allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.

    10. 8. recessive alleleAn allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.

    11. 9. hybridAn organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait.

    12. Notes Gregor Mendel • 1. _______________________ is called the “father of genetics”

    13. 2. Mendel used peas because: • A. _________________________ • B. _________________________ They have many traits that exist in only 2 forms Garden peas produce large numbers of offspring in one generation so it is easy to collect large amounts of data to analyze

    14. 3. Traits are controlled by _________________ of _____________ inheritance genes

    15. one • 4. Organisms inherit ______ allele from _________ parent. each

    16. 5. Some alleles are ____________________and others are __________________________. dominant recessive

    17. Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 2: Probability & Genetics

    18. Section 2 -Objectives: • To describe the principles of probability and how Mendel applied them to inheritance • To state how geneticists use Punnett squares • To explain the meaning of the terms phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, and codominance.

    19. Vocab • 10. probabilityThe likelihood that a particular event will occur.

    20. 11. Punnett squareA chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.

    21. 12. phenotypeAn organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits.

    22. 13. genotypeAn organism’s genetic makeup, or allele combinations.

    23. 14. homozygousHaving two identical alleles for a trait.

    24. 15. heterozygousHaving two different alleles for a trait.

    25. 16. codominanceA condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.

    26. Notes • 1. Probability is the ___________________ that a ____________________ will occur. likelihood particular event

    27. Mendel • 2. _____________________ was the first scientist to recognize that the ________________________ of ________________________ can be used to predict the result of genetic crosses. principles probability

    28. 3. Geneticists use Punnett squares to: • A. • B. Show all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross Determine the probability of a particular outcome

    29. Phenotype • 4. _________________________ is the physical appearance, while ________________________ is the _______________________ make-up. genotype Genetic makeup

    30. 5. Punnett Square practice: • B-Blue • b-red • Genotype: • Phenotype: b B BB Bb B Bb bb b 1 BB: 2Bb: 1bb 3 Blue, 1 red

    31. 5. Punnett Square practice: • G- Green • g-Yellow • Genotype: • Phenotype: g G Gg gg g Gg gg g • 2 Gg: 2gg • 2 Green: 2 Yellow

    32. Your turn. Practice sheet. • Independent and Silent • Refer to your notes. • Go over as a group.

    33. Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 3: The Cell and Inheritance

    34. Section 3: The Cell and Inheritance • To describe the role of chromosomes in inheritance • To identify and describe the events that occur during meiosis

    35. 17. meiosisThe process that occurs in sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.

    36. Notes • 1. Sex cells have exactly ____________ the number of chromosomes as ____________ cells. half other

    37. 2. The chromosome theory of inheritance states: • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtchromo.mov Genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes

    38. 3. During meiosis, the chromosome: • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtmeiosi.mov • See pg. In text The chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells. The resulting sex cells have only have half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.

    39. Genes • 4. ____________________ are located on chromosomes.

    40. 5. Our bodies have ________ pairs of chromosomes that contain over __________ genes. 23 60,000

    41. Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Section 4: The DNA Connection

    42. Section 4: The DNA Connection -Objectives: • To explain the term “genetic code”: • To describe the process by which a cell produces proteins • To describe different types of mutations and how they affect an organism.

    43. 17. messenger RNARNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.

    44. 18. transfer RNARNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain.

    45. Notes • 1. The main function of genes is to: Control the production of proteins in the organism’s cells. Proteins help to determine the size, shape, and many other traits in an organism.

    46. order • 2. The _________ of _______________ bases along a _____________ forms a genetic code that specifies what type of ___________ will be produced. • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtgeneti.mov • http://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/iText/products/0-13-036738-9/ch3/videoBlank.html?/ebook/products/0-13-036738-9/video/vtprotei.mov nitrogen gene protein

    47. mutation • 3. A _____________ is a change in a ___________ or ____________________. • DNA mutations: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ajRf8yMBe0 gene chromosome

    48. 4. Mutations can be: • A. ____________ and an example would be ______________. • B. ____________ and an example would be ______________. • C. ______________________ and an example would be ______________. Harmful cancer Helpful Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Neither harmful or helpful A white buffalo color on a farm (versus a white buffalo color in the wild)