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Higher History:Essay Skills What are the key words in this question? Essay Question: “Simply a Response to the growth ofthe Labour Movement” How Adequate is this explanation of the social reforms of the Liberal Government between 1906 and 1914? What does the question really mean? Did the Liberals introduce their social reforms only because they were worried that if they did not, people would vote for the Labour party?
How to answer your essay. Firstly Discuss all the factors that led the Liberal Government to introduce its social reforms Secondly Decide how important the “response to the growth of the Labour Movement” was compared to the other reasons you have described.
The Social Surveys The German model Liberal social reforms The New Liberals “National Efficiency” Try to deal with these factors in a logical order.This does not have to be the same as the order in this presentation. Try to make a link between each factor The Rise of The Labour Party
Introduction A good introduction to an essay should have 3 elements • Briefly describe the subject/topic of the question and establish the dates • Identify the key factors you will be writing about. • Briefly outline your line of argument in the last sentence of the introduction.
1. Suggested Introduction (check to see if this has the 3 elements listed in the previous slide) Paragraph 1 Between 1906 and 1914,the Liberal Government introduceda series of social reforms. The reforms were the result of a combination of complex factors. The Liberal Government were worried by the growth in the popularity of the Labour Party. They were also responding to fears of Britain’s decline in “national efficiency” – shown up in the Boer War. The social surveys of Booth and Rowntree also convinced the government that social reforms to help the poor were urgently needed. New Liberals like Lloyd George and Churchill also played a part in convincing the government of the need for social reform. Although some historians have suggested that the Liberal reforms were introduced in response to the growth of the Labour movement, the fear of Britain’s decline and the influence of the New Liberals were equally important.
MAIN BODY OF THE ESSAY Paragraph 2: Briefly set the scene before starting the next paragraph When the Liberal Government came to power in 1906,they did not have a detailed programme of social reforms already drawn up. Once in power, it quickly became clear to the government that social reforms were urgently needed to help children,the sick,the elderly and the unemployed. What factors influenced this change of attitude? One important factor was the rise of the Labour Party Link the last sentence of this paragraph to the first sentence of your next paragraph
The Rise of the Labour Party • The growth of the Labour Party played an important role in convincing the Liberal Government to introduce their social reforms • The Labour Movement which had developed at the end of the 19th Century under the leadership of Keir Hardie, represented Britain’s working classes and was dedicated to improving their living and working conditions. • The Labour Party had increased their number of MP’s from 5 in 1902 to 29 in 1905. The Liberals were worried that failure to improve the social conditions of the working classes would lead them to desert the Liberals and vote for the Labour Party. Keir Hardie Link to the next paragraph
The “New Liberals” “Don’t be afraid to take a big step” http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/170px-David_Lloyd_George.jpg http://logo.cafepress.com/0/489562.151740.gif • The “New Liberal” politicians like David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill wanted the Liberal Party to introduce social reforms to help the poor, the unemployed, the elderly and the sick. • They had genuine sympathy for the poor but were also worried by the rise in support for the Labour Party which they believed would affect the Liberals. • The New Liberals convinced the Liberal leaders to do more to help the poorest in Britain REMEMBER to link to the next paragraph
The Social Surveys of Booth and Rowntree The massive surveys into British poverty by Booth and Rowntree provided the incoming Liberal Government with detailed evidence which had not been available to previous governments. • Charles Booth’s “Survey of Life and Labour in London” completed in 1903, showed the huge level of poverty in London:nearly one third of the population
Seebohm Rowntree’s Survey of Poverty in York • Seebohm Rowntree’s study of working class families in York: “Poverty: A study of Town Life” was published in 1901.It confirmed Charles Booth’s findings that one third of Britain’s population was living in poverty • Booth and Rowntree’s surveys revealed the scale of Britain’s poverty for the first time and its causes: low wages, unemployment and retirement in old age. • When the Liberal Government came to power in 1906, Booth’s and Rowntree’s surveys gave them a clear picture of the scale and the causes of poverty across Britain and made it impossible for them to ignore the problem. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RErowntreeS.htm REMEMBER to link to the next paragraph
“National Efficiency” • The Boer war which broke out in 1899 between Britain and South Africa brought to a head many of the fears that the Government had about the decline in Britain’s “National Efficiency” • It was believed that the mental and physical health of the working classes was very poor and that Britain was falling behind its main competitors like Germany and the USA. • The Government realised that it would have to do more to improve the lives of Britain’s poorest workers. British officers pose for a photo in South Africa. Up to60%of ordinary soldiers enlisting in the army in 1900 were rejected on medical grounds! Link to the next paragraph
The German model of Social Welfare http://www.preussen.de/Bilder/Geschichte/wilhelm_I./bismarck.jpg • The great German Chancellor, Bismarck, had introduced a social welfare system in Germany at the end of the 19th century. Bismarck wanted to gain the support of the German working classes and prevent them from turning to socialism and communism.Germany’s social welfare system was the first in Europe. • ‘New Liberal’ politicians including Lloyd George visited Germany and were impressed by what they saw. • The German model helped to influence the Liberals to introduce reforms in Britain Remember to link to the next paragraph
Conclusion A good conclusion should have 4 key elements: • Summarise your conclusions on each of the factors you have discussed • Present a clear line of argument using the words of the question • Make sure that you have answered the question you were asked. • Try to use agood quotation in your summing up.