Name WANTED Background Info Description: HERO • Achievements: Crimes: Wanted By: Caution: GO TO WEBSITE “RESOURCES” TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT OPTIONAL BONUS POINTS ON CHAPTER 8 TEST
CHAPTER 8 LESSON 1 NOTES: THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES: THE RULE OF THE FRANKS
A.D. 476……. AncientTimes ends when Rome, capital of the Western Roman Empire, falls; MedievalTimes begin. 500……The MerovingianDynasty of the Christianized tribe called the Franksbegins to rule [France] Gaul, western German lands, and central Italy, including Rome.
600s…. The 7th century introduces a new world religion from Arabia called Islamwhose followers are called Muslims.
700……The Merovingian dynasty weakens so severely, real power rests with a government official called the MajorDomo (mayor of the palace); Pepin I makes this position hereditary.
714….. Pepin I’s son, CharlesMartelinherits the position of MajorDomo and “hammers” the Muslims out of Christian Franceat the Battle of Tours. But the Muslimscontinue to control Palestine, North Africa, and Spain.
750…..Martel’s son, Pepin II (the Short) inherits the title of “Major Domo;” to secure the title of kingfrom the Merovingians,
he seizes the Frenchthrone as “Kingof the Franksby the grace of God” by receiving the Roman Catholic pope’s blessing in exchange for giving the pope valuable Italian lands that become known as the PapalStates;
Tell me again, Major Domo Pepin…What do I get for crowning you “King of the Franks?” Why, Pope Zachary, I bestow upon you your own lands that you can call the Papal States! And I will protect those lands for you at all costs!
Who will rule the Papal States? • the pope • On what peninsula are the Papal States located? • Italian • What major city is a part of the Papal States? • Rome
RESULT OF THIS EXCHANGE: political power appears to rests with the approval of the papacy [or papal authority; anything relating to a pope]
768……Pepin the Short’s son, Charles(the Great) inherits the title, “King of the Franks,” (his French name is Charlemagne; his Latin name is CarolusMagnus) and he begins the Carolingian dynasty; he defends and spreads Christianitythroughout his empire by the sword, earning him the nickname the “Holy Barbarian.”
800……Charlemagne is crowned “Emperor of the Romans” on Christmas Day by the Catholic pope (angering the Byzantine emperor in the East); Charlemagne builds an empire from Spainto the NorthSea and names Aachen[in Germany] as his capital;
he begins a cultural Renaissance of learning not seen in Western Europe since the PaxRomana time period. 814……Charlemagne dies, leaving his empire to his son Louisthe Pious who divides the empire among his three sons who eventually cause a civilwar by fighting among themselves for self-rule of the entire empire.
843……The Treatyof Verdun ends the civil war but the empire is too weak to fight off attacks from the outside: Muslims from North Africa Slavs from Eastern Europe Magyars from Asia and
Vikings(called Normansby the Franks) from Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark, Sweden):
1. From which earlier Merovingian political position did Charlemagne’s initial success derive? MAJOR DOMO
2. How did the Battle of Tours encourage European Christians? THEIR VICTORY OVER THE MUSLIMS, THEY BELIEVED, WAS A SIGN THAT GOD WAS ON THE SIDE OF CHRISTIANITY
3. What political precedent was set when Pepin the Short gave the Papal States to the pope in exchange for Pepin being crowned “King of the Franks?” THE POSITION OF “KING” CAN ONLY BE APPROVED BY A POPE, LEADING TO FUTURE POWER STRUGGLES BETWEEN CATHOLIC POPES AND EUROPEAN RULERS.
4. Why was the Byzantine emperor angry that Charlemagne was crowned “Emperor of the Romans?” SINCE THE RULES OF ROMAN EMPERORS DIOCLETIAN AND CONSTANTINE, EMPERORS IN CONSTANTINOPLE HAD ALWAYS BEEN CONSIDERED THE SOLE ROMAN RULERS.
5. What is the result, more often than not, of civil war? THE PEOPLE AND THE LAND ARE SO WEAKENED BY WAR THAT THEY ARE OFTEN ATTACKED AND CONQUERED BY OTHERS.