EHS and Chemical Hygiene Environment, Health and Safety
Environment: • Air Emissions and Ambient Air Quality • Energy Conservation • Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality • Water Conservation • Hazardous Materials Management • Waste Management • Noise • Contaminated Land and Remediation
Occupational Health and Safety • General Facility Design and Operation • Communication and Training • Physical Hazards • Chemical Hazards • Biological Hazards • Radiological Hazards • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Special Hazard Environments • Monitoring
Community Health and Safety: • Water Quality and Availability • Structural Safety of Project Infrastructure • Life and Fire Safety (L&FS) • Traffic Safety • Transport of Hazardous Materials • Disease Prevention • Emergency Preparedness and Response
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Act Administration • Created within the Department of Labor • Law created in 1970 Under the OSHA act, • encourage employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and to implement new or improve existing safety and health standards; • provide for research in occupational safety and health and develop innovative ways of dealing with occupational safety and health problems; • establish "separate but dependent responsibilities and rights" for employers and employees for the achievement of better safety and health conditions;
OSHA (Cont’d) • maintain a reporting and recordkeeping system to monitor job-related injuries and illnesses; • establish training programs to increase the number and competence of occupational safety and health personnel; and, • develop mandatory job safety and health standards and enforce them effectively.
How does a University Lab fall into this? General Duty Clause: The general duty clause states that each employer shall furnish "a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to [its] employees." In those cases where a specific standard does not exist, OSHA will use the general duty clause for the issuance of citations and fines.
Laboratory Safety Issues • Employees - Safety governed by MIOSHA’s Chemical Hygiene Plan requirements • Students - Doctrine of Reasonable Care applies
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Purpose Provide guidance and protocols for the protection of employees from safety and health effects of laboratory hazardous materials.
Doctrine of Reasonable Care • Duty - What would a reasonable person of ordinary prudence do • Breach of Duty - Failure to conform to the legal duty (an act or failure to act) • Causation - Breach causes the injury • Direct act • Proximate Cause • Injury - There must be an injury
Examples of “Negligence” in the Laboratory • Unclear or misunderstood instructions • Instructions do not clearly warn of impending hazards • Lack of safety equipment • Assigned experiment was unnecessarily dangerous • Instructor not adequately trained to supervise
Unclear or Misunderstood Instructions “I must have misunderstood…..” “He speaks a foreign language…..” “I didn’t want to appear stupid…..” “I don’t think the instructor is good at giving directions…..” “I was in a hurry to finish…..”
Instructions do not clearly warn of impending hazards “If it was so dangerous, why wasn’t I told…..” “I don’t remember things until I hear them repeated…..” “The book is unclear…..” “I was just trying to see what happens…..” “No one told me that ether fumes can spread so far…..”
Safety Training Steps • Identify the safety concerns • Restate your concerns • Instructor informs you on the correct methods and safeguards • Repeat information on correct methods and safeguards to yourself. Write in lab notebook. • Check to make sure there is understanding
Lack of safety equipment • “We don’t require safety glasses all the time…..” • “We do not have the resources to purchase gloves for everyone…..” • “We can’t make them wear lab coats…..” • “We have safety rules posted on the wall…..”
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PPE - Personal Protective Equipment • Long pants required, no shorts. • • No neckties, dangling clothes or dangling jewelry. • • Long sleeve shirts recommended. • • Tie-up long hair to prevent from entanglement. • • Non-porous shoes, no sandals.
Face Protection • Eye Protection • Glasses • side shields • Z-87 • Goggles • dusty, chemicals • Face shield
Hand Protection • Cloth/Leather • Chemical
Proper steps for removing gloves 2 1 4 3 5 6
HAND WASHING • Hand washing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infections. • Wash your hands often and thoroughly, paying special attention to the area around and under your fingernails. • Wash Hands: • Before and after eating. • After using the restroom. • After removing gloves. • Before leaving lab at the end of the lab period. • Gloves are not a substitute for routine hand washing - rather an added protection.
Respirators • Escape • 1 use or 1 year • Filtering • Fit test • Fit check • Supplied Air • SCBA Disposable Dust/Particulate Respirators
Special Clothing • Aprons • Coveralls • Using Lasers • dark glasses / shield
Head Protection • Hard Hats • Change liner every year • New every 5 years
Safety Foot Wear • Steel Toe • Rubber or Chemical
Hearing Protection • Plugs • Muffs • Custom fit
Material Safety Data Sheets • When you are not sure about a material - look up the msds sheet.
DEFINITIONS • Flammable: A substance having a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit - easily ignited and quick burning. • Toxic: A substance which has the capacity, through chemical reaction or mixture, to produce injury or harm to the body by entry through absorption, ingestion, inhalation, or injection. • Caustic: A substance with the capability of burning, destroying or eating away organic tissue by chemical reaction - Corrosive.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS) • The MSDS is used by chemical manufacturers and vendors to convey hazard information to users. • MSDS’s should be obtained when a chemical is purchased. • A chemical inventory list, and MSDS, for each chemical are required.
READING THE MSDSInformation on the MSDS is organized in 8 sections as follows: • Identity The chemical name, trade name and manufacturers name, address and emergency phone number can be found here. • Hazardous Ingredients Hazardous ingredients are identified here. • Physical and Chemical Characteristics, Boiling/Melting point, vapor pressure and density, water solubility, and appearance/odor can be found here. • Fire Data Flash point, flammable limits, extinguishing media, unusual fire/explosion hazards, and any special fire fighting equipment are listed here.
Reading the MSDS8 Sections Continued • Health Data Routes of entry (inhalation, ingestion, etc…), effects from short and long term exposure, emergency and first aid procedures fall in this section. • Reactivity Data Stability, incompatible materials, hazardous decomposition are among the topics in this area. • Spill or Leak Procedures You will find clean-up procedures, waste disposal, and precautions needed when handling/storing materials here. • Spill Precaution Information Any personal protective equipment (PPE), ventilation, and work/hygiene practices are noted here. Utube video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZcghjHu60K4
Risk Assessment 1. What are the harmful effects of the material or process? 2. What form is it in? 3. What other dangers are involved? 4. How do the conditions of the experiment allow the material to come in contact with me or others?
Job Safety Assessment • Used to determine hazards associated with a particular • experiment / procedure and to control the hazards. • • Side benefit: excellent method to organize experiment • and procedure prior to operation. • • Can be used as an appendix in thesis.
JSA – Page 1 Used to identify location of experiment.
JSA – Page 1 Provide a brief verbal description of what this experiment is supposed to do.
JSA – Page 1 This should summarize all the personal protective equipment required normally in the laboratory and PPE required for this particular experiment. Equipment that is required all the time (such as safety glasses) does not need to be listed on each step of the JSA.
JSA – Page 1 Check all hazards that result due to this experiment. Identify the one major source of the hazard.
JSA – Page 1 List the expected normal, minimum and maximum values for the temperature and pressure.
JSA – Page 2 Check all special operating conditions. List all equipment available within the laboratory and their location. Show the locations on an attached floor plan.
JSA – Page 2 List the location of the spill response equipment. Show location on an attached laboratory diagram.
JSA – Page 2 Provide all the attachments shown, and list any additional attachments provided.