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ANIMAL HEALTH. DAVID M. BENEFIELD CULLMAN HIGH SCHOOL. Types of Disinfectants and Antiseptics. Disinfectants “applied to the environment” Sodium hydroxide – used widely as a germicide Unslaked lime – mixed with water to form calcium hydroxide

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  2. Types of Disinfectants and Antiseptics • Disinfectants “applied to the environment” • Sodium hydroxide – used widely as a germicide • Unslaked lime – mixed with water to form calcium hydroxide • Quaternary ammonium compounds – most common spray disinfectants (lysol, clorox spray) • Antiseptics “applied to the animal” • Iodine • Ethanol – ethyl rubbing alcohol • Isopropanol – isopropyl rubbing alcohol

  3. cont. • Hydrogen peroxide • Cleansers • Detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers • Soaps

  4. METHODS OF ADMINISTERING MEDICINE • Topical – applied to skin or mucous membranes of eye,ear, or nasal passage • Ex. Ointments, powders, aerosols • Oral – given by mouth by feeding, balling gun, drench applicator (gun), or dose syringe • Ex. Pills, tablets, capsules, liquids • Anal or rectal – introduced into rectum • Ex. Suppository

  5. Methods, cont. • Nasal – introduced into the nose • Ex. Spray for respiratory virus • Injectable – placed directly into animal’s body with needle and syringe • Ex. Intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal • Intrauterine – introduced directly into uterus • Ex. Bolus placed in uterus after calving problems

  6. Common Types of Animal Medical Equipment • Balling Gun – used to administer pills, capsules, or boluses orally • Syringe – used with needle to administer liquid injectables • Thermometer – inserted into animal’s rectum to check body temperature • Drench Gun – used to administer orally liquid medications • Speculum Tube – 20-inch metal tube used with a rubber tube to relieve cattle of bloat • Implant Gun – used to deposit growth stimulant pellets in back of ear


  8. SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION (SUB Q) Made in any area where skin fits loosely, such a neck, chest wall, or flank; dosage is deposited under raised skin, and area is then massaged to facilitate distribution.

  9. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION (IM) Made deeply into large muscle with needle at least ¾ inch long. Not placed in high priced meat areas, can damaged muscle tissue.

  10. INTRAVENOUS INJECTION (IV) Made directly into jugular vein with 14- or 16- gauge. 1 ½ to 2- inch needle with point toward animal’s heart. Fastest route for medicine.

  11. INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION (IP) Made into right flank at point in center of triangle formed by loin, last rib, and line from top of last rib to hip bone.

  12. INFUSION INTRAMAMMARY (IMM) Made with cannula directly into teat canal after disinfecting teat and depressing teat to open sphincter muscle. Mastitis (infection)

  13. INTRARUMINAL INJECTION (IR) Made through the left flank with a 14-gauge, 3-inch needle. Used to relieve bloat and injecting medicine directly into the rumen.

  14. INTRADERMAL INJECTION (ID) Made into skin with a 20- to 26-gauge needle. Should raise a blister. Hair is shaven in area.

  15. Types of Vaccines • Bacterial – vaccine which protects against diseases caused by bacteria • Killed virus – produced by infecting an animal with a specific virus which is harvested at the height of infection and subjected to killing agents (dead virus stimulates antibodies) • Live virus – produced by growing a live culture of the virus • Modified live virus – made by altering a disease-producing agent by growing it in another host or reducing virulence of the virus

  16. cont. • Monovalent – vaccine which produces only one disease immunity • Polyvalent – vaccine which produces immunity against two or more diseases • Viral – vaccine which protects against diseases caused by viruses • Serum – fluid portion of blood without the cells or the clotting factors (obtained from animals immune to the disease and injected into other animals in order to give passive immunity

  17. Common Diseases • Blackleg and clostridium infections (Sub Q or IM) • Vibriosis (IM) • Leptospirosis (IM) • Enterotoxemia (Sub Q) • Erysipelas (Sub Q or IM) • Anemia (IM) • Staph mastitis (IM)

  18. GUIDELINES FOR PROPER VACCINATION OF ANIMALS • Use a clean syringe in good working order • Use only the dose directed • Use proper method and proper route • Keep vaccine bottles refrigerated • Do not expose live biologicals to sunlight • Observe slaughter withdrawal time • Do not inject in primal cuts; use shoulder of neck muscles • Disinfect or change needles for each different animal • Follow all manufacturer’s directions

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