A new newspaper • Founded in 1821 • The Manchester Guardian : a local newspaper • First editor : John Edward Taylor,a merchant • Creation : in reaction to the Peterloo massacre and the radical media’s opinion John Edward Taylor, first editor of The Guardian (1821-1844)
The Origins • Weeklynewspaper : published on Saturdays • A liberalnewspaper : a textile traders and merchants’ media • Broadsheet • Cost : 7 pences
A history of adaptation • 19th century : fromweekly to dailynewspaper.1836 : an aditionnal publication on Wednesdays ; 1855 : a dailywith the abolition of stampduty • From local to national and international : assesseditsreputationunder the editorship of CP Scott in the early 20thDroped of « Manchester » in 1959 thenmoved to London in 1964 • Frombroadsheet to Berliner (2005) and multimedia (1999).
The Guardian nowadays • Full-coloured, Berliner, price : 1,2 £, 0,50 for students • Averagedaily circulation : 232,566 in September, 2011Third in the UK : 1. The Daily Telegraph, 2. The Times, 3. The Guardian • 2 sisterpapers : The Observer (Sundaynewspaper in UK) ; The Guardian Weekly (weekly international edition) • Audience on the web : 36 to 37 millions per month (Feb, 2010) • The Guardian app : launched in 2009
Opinion and political stand • Reputation of qualitynewspaper in opposition to tabloids • Middle-class newspaper • Independence and objectivity :“Comment is free, but facts are sacred... The voice of opponents no less than that of friends has a right to be heard ” (1921, CP Scott, Guardian’s editorship) • A centre-left newspaper CP Scott : editor of The Guardian from 1872 to 1929
A history of commitment • Againstreforms : Peterloo massacre and trade-unionists • Under Scott’seditorship : became more radical : wars, Suffragettes’ movement, Israel • International : Spanish civil war, Suez crisis • National : Northern Ireland, against Tories, pro New Labour.
Key stands • Tony Blair • Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq • Israel • Phone hacking scandale
Tony Blair and Labour • Strong supporter of hiselectionat the head of the New Labour and of him standing for the PM election • 2010 : the newspaperbecame a supporter of the Liberalswith Gordon Brown’selection. « Citizens have votes. Newspapers do not. However, if the Guardian had a vote in the 2010 general election it would be cast enthusiastically for the Liberal Democrats. (…) But this time is different. The conjuncture in 2010 of a Labour party that has lost so much public confidence and a Conservative party that has not yet won it has enabled Mr Clegg to take his party close to the threshold of real influence for the first time in nearly 90 years. » (Editorial, The Guardian, April, 30th)
Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq • The Guardian attracted lots of anti-warreaders«it is surely time to reassess the whole intervention. It matters not whether this makes or breaks Nato. What matters is whether this intervention can achieve its aims. If it can't, something much more modest should be put in place. It should be scaled back, not increased» (Game of Losers, Editorial, The Guardian, 16th March 20096)
Israel • In favor of the creation of an Israeli state veryearly • Nowaccused of bias in coverage of Israel • The Guardian’sanswer : « balanced and objective » coverage (Harriet Sherwood in an editorial in 2002) http://www.guardian.co.uk/values/socialaudit/story/0,,1931208,00.html
Phone hacking scandal • The Guardian : key source • First release : July, 4th http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jul/04/milly-dowler-voicemail-hacked-news-of-world • Criticism of the Murdoch’s system ratherthan News of The World itself « That Rupert Murdoch is ruthless is a universally acknowledged truth. But his action in killing off the 168-year-old News of the World – the first paper he bought in Britain 42 years ago – was one of the most clinical moves in his long, tumultuous career as a newspaper publisher. Some would go further and say that it was one of his most cynical. » (Editorial, “The News of the World: Put out of its misery”, July 2011, 7th)