Newspaper By : MONA, NOUF, WESAM, ETAAB
Presentation outline 1. newspaper brief history. 2. Types of news paper 3. Head lines *types of head lines and examples. *Differences between head lines
Newspaper history For centuries, civilizations have used print media to spread news and information to the masses. The Roman Acta Diurna, appearing around 59 B.C, is the earliest recorded “newspaper”. Julius Caesar, wanting to inform the public about important social and political happenings, ordered upcoming events posted in major cities. Written on large white boards and displayed in popular places like the Baths, the Acta kept citizens informed about government scandals, military campaigns, trials and executions. In 8th century China, the first newspapers appeared as hand-written newsheets in Beijing.
Newspaper history The printing press, invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1447, ushered in the era of the modern newspaper. Gutenberg’s machine enabled the free exchange of ideas and the spread of knowledge -- themes that would define Renaissance Europe. During this era, newsletters supplied a growing merchant class with news relevant to trade and commerce. Manuscript newssheets were being circulated in German cities by the late 15th century. These pamphlets were often highly sensationalized; one reported on the abuse that Germans in Transylvania were suffering at the hands of Vlad TsepesDrakul, also known as Count Dracula. In 1556 the Venetian government published Notizie scritte, for which readers paid a small coin, or “gazetta”.
Newspaper history In the first half of the 17th century, newspapers began to appear as regular and frequent publications. The first modern newspapers were products of western European countries like Germany (publishing Relation in 1605), France (Gazette in 1631), Belgium (Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616) and England (the London Gazette, founded in 1665, is still published as a court journal). These periodicals consisted mainly of news items from Europe, and occasionally included information from America or Asia. They rarely covered domestic issues; instead English papers reported on French military blunders while French papers covered the latest British royal scandal.
Newspaper history • No sooner had newspapers adapted to radio than they were forced to re-evaluate themselves in light of a new and more powerful medium: television. Between 1940 and 1990, newspaper circulation in America dropped from one newspaper for every two adults to one for every three adults. Despite this sharp decline, television’s omnipresence did not render the newspaper obsolete. Some newspapers, like USA Today, responded to the technological advancements by using color and by utilizing the “short, quick and to the point” stories that are usually featured on television. • The technological revolution of today is creating new challenges and opportunities for traditional media. Never before has so much information been so accessible to so many
Types of newspaper Newspapers can be divided into two sorts: broadsheets, and tabloids. Broadsheet newspapers are the large ones (e.g. The Times and The Daily Telegraph) Tabloid newspapers are the small ones (e.g. The Sun andThe Daily Mirror). You may have discovered the following things: • Newspaper writing is in columns . • Newspaper stories are often called articles or reports • All articles' titles are called headlines .
Types of newspaper 4. Many articles have pictures to go with them; the writing under a picture is called a caption 5. Articles are often split into sections by subheadings ; often these are just one word. 6. Articles often include interviews with people involved in the incident.
TYPES OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Most of the articles you see in The Dispatch are news articles. News articles focus only on the facts <ETH> they don't contain anyone's opinion There are several types of news articles. A local news article focuses on what's going on in your neighborhood. An example of a local news story would be an article on a city council meeting. A national news article focuses on what's happening in the United States. An example of a national news article would be an article on the U.S. Senate passing a new bill. An international news article focuses on news that's happening outside the United States. A story on an influenza outbreak in Chile would be considered an international news story.
TYPES OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES A feature article is an article that is about "softer" news. A feature may be a profile of a person who does a lot of volunteer work in the community or a movie preview. Feature articles are not considered news stories. An editorial is an article that contains the writer's opinion. Editorials are usually run all together on a specific page of the paper and focus on current events. Editorials are not considered news stories. A column is an article written by the same person on a regular basis. A columnist (the writer of the column) writes about subjects of interest to him/her, current events or community happenings. Columns are not considered news stories.
TIPS FOR WRITING FEATURES • A feature article is an article that is about "softer" news. A feature may be a profile of a person who does a lot of volunteer work in the community or a preview of a movie about to hit the theaters. Like news writing, strong feature writing is simple, clear and orderly. But, unlike news stories, feature stories don't have to be written about events that just happened. Instead, they focus on human interest, mood, atmosphere, emotion, irony and humor. Here are some steps to follow to help you write a good feature story: 1. Get the reader's attention quickly. • Start with a well thought-out first paragraph touching on some aspect of the person's life that you are writing about or the event if it is not a person. • Good feature stories have a beginning that draws in readers, a transition that might repeat it in the middle and an ending that refers to the beginning.
TIPS FOR WRITING FEATURES 2.Organize your story carefully. • Feature stories can be told in narrative fashion or by sliding from event to event even though not in chronological order. Use careful transitions to maintain the flow of the story if you're not going to follow chronological order. 3. Use short paragraphs effect and vary the lengths of sentences for.• Reading sentences and paragraphs that are always the same length gets boring. 4. Write with strong verbs and nouns, but go easy on adjectives. • Try to draw a picture of your subject or event through your writing. Read the sentences below and think about which paints a better picture for your reader: The man was tall. The man's head almost brushed against the eight foot ceiling in the room. The ship sank in 1900. The ship sank just as the first intercontinental railroad was nearing completion.
TIPS FOR WRITING FEATURES 5.Don't be afraid to use offbeat quotes. • Not profanity, but rather witty things the person may say in response to a question about their success, life or family. 6. Write tightly.• You do not need to tell the reader everything you know on a subject or event. Tell only the most important things. It's better to write shorter than longer. A good feature can be done in 500-750 words
Features Feature articles are nonfiction articles that intend to inform, teach, or amuse the reader on a topic. The topic centers around human interests. Feature stories may include conventions found in fiction such as dialogue, plot and character. A feature article is an umbrella term that includes many literary structures: personality sketches, essays, how-to's, interviews and many others.The following are examples of feature articles: • Column — A short newspaper or magazine piece that deals specifically with a particular field of interest, or broadly with an issue or circumstance of far-reaching scope. They appear with bylines on a regular basis (daily, weekly, etc.). They may be written exclusively for one newspaper or magazine; they may be marketed by a syndicate, or they may be self-syndicated by the author.
Essay — A short, literary, nonfiction composition (usually prose) in which a writer develops a theme or expresses an idea. • Evergreen — A timeless article that editors can hold for months and publish when needed. They need little or no updating. • Exposè — These articles use in-depth reporting with heavy research and documentation. Used to expose corruption in business, politics or celebrities. Also called the investigative article. • Filler — Short non-fiction items, usually just under 300 words used to fill in space on a page of a magazine or newspaper • How-to — How-to articles help people to learn how to do something. They provide step-by-step information for the reader. • Human interest story — An article that involves local people and events and can be sold to daily and some weekly newspapers. Human interest elements, such as anecdotes or accounts of personal experiences, can support ideas in magazine articles as firmly as facts or statistics. Also called "true-life" stories. • Interview —This feature story type article includes the text of the conversation between two or more people, normally directed by the interviewer. Interviews are often edited for clarity. One common variation is the roundtable--the text of a less organized discussion, usually between three or more people.
Op-Ed — Articles that run opposite the editorial page. They are a response to current editorials and topical subjects. Political op-eds are the most common, but they don't have to be limited to politics. They must, however, reflect items that are current and newsworthy. • Personal experience — An article in which the writer recounts an ordeal, process, or event he has undergone. • Personality Profile — A personal or professional portrait--sometimes both-- of a particular individual. • Seasonal — An article written about a holiday, season of the year, or timely observance. This kind of article must be submitted months in advance of the anticipated publication date . • Service Article — An article about a consumer product or service; it outlines the characteristics of several of the same type of commodity. The aim is to help the consumer make the best selection possible. • Sidebar — A short feature that accompanies a news story or magazine article. It elaborates on human interest aspects of the story, explains one important facet of the story in more depth, or provides additional factual information--such as a list of names and addresses--that would read awkwardly in the body of the article. Can be found in a box, separated from the main article on the side or bottom. • Travel literature — Travel articles inform and enlighten the reader through facts about a region's landscape, scenery, people, customs, and atmostphere.
Types of articles Articles can be divided into two main categories: news and features. Straight news stories deal with the timeliness and immediacy of breaking news, while feature articles are news stories that deal with human interest topics. A NEWS article is an article published in a print or Internetnews medium such as a newspaper, newsletter, news magazine, or news-oriented website that discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) or on a specific topic (i.e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news websites). • A news article can include accounts of eyewitnesses to the happening event. It can contain photographs, accounts, statistics, graphs, recollections, interviews, polls, debates on the topic, etc. Headlines can be used to focus the reader’s attention on a particular (or main) part of the article. The writer can also give facts and detailed information following answers to general questions like who, what, when, where, why and how. Quoting references can also be helpful. References to people can also be made through written accounts of interviews and debates confirming the factuality of the writer’s information and the reliability of his source. The writer can use redirections to ensure that the reader keeps reading the article and also draws his attention to other articles. For example: - phrases like “continued on page x …” redirects the reader to page number x where the article is continued. Conclusions also are very important ingredients for newspaper articles.
Types of articlE • Other types of articles • Academic — An academic article is an academic paper published in a journal. An academic's status is usually dependent on how many articles they have had published, and also the number of times their articles are cited by other articles. • Blog — Some styles of blogging are more like articles. Other styles are written more like entries in a personal journal. • Encyclopedia — In an encyclopedia or other reference work, an article is a primary division of content. • Marketing — An often thin piece of content which is designed to draw the reader to a commercial website. • Usenet — Usenet articles are e-mail like messages posted to share Usenet newsgroup. Characteristics of well-written articles • The piece is a factual account of a newsworthy event. • The writer is objective and shows all sides to an issue. • The sources for this news story are identified and are reliable.
Body Body of feature article • Feature articles follow a format appropriate for its type. Structures for these types of articles may include, but are not limited to: • chronological — the article may be a narrative of some sort. • cause and effect — the reasons and results of an event or process is examined. • classification — items in an article are grouped to help aid understanding • compare and contrast— two or more items are examined side-by-side to see their similarities and differences • list — A simple item-by-item run-down of pieces of information. • question and answer —such as an interview with a celebrity or expert. Body of news story • For the news story, details and elaboration are evident in the body of the news story and flow smoothly from the lead. • Quotes are used to add interest and support to the story. • The inverted pyramid is used with most news stories
Body • One difference between a news story and a feature article is the conclusion. Endings for hard news article occur when all of the information has been presented according to the inverted pyramid form. By contrast, the feature article needs more definite closure . The conclusions for these articles may include, but are not limited to: • a final quote • a descriptive scene • a play on the title or lead • a summary statement
The Language of News Stories News writing tends to be: • impersonal to make it appear objective (to distance the reporter from the story) hence: • written in the third person • use of direct speech or indirect speech which is attributed to someone other than the reporter. • some use of passive verbs but usually only when someone who is being quoted wants to distance themselves from an issue and to show their objectivity about an issue. • about something that has taken place so mostly written in the past tense
The Language of News Stories • simple - in fact close to the way we talk - so relatively short sentences and words and some use of cliches which the whole audience understands. • punchy - it must grab the reader's attention so often uses: • short rather than long words • active verbs • relatively short sentences • concrete rather than abstract vocabulary • See this Assessment Resource Bank resource on Types of Nouns • sometimes emotive and colorful vocabulary • some use (but not overuse) of adjectives • but also relatively formal hence • no use of contractions • sentences written in full (no elision) or eliptical sentences • sometimes imagery is used to help create a clearer mental picture for the reader. • often including the reporter's bi-line and/or a date-line
Headlines Stylistic features of headlines: • Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase a common example in English is " Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers “ • Assonance is repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences, and together with alliteration and consonance serves as one of the building blocks of verse. For example, in the phrase "Do you like blue?", the "oo" (ou/ue) sound is repeated within the sentence and is assonant. • Assonance is more a feature of verse than prose. It is used in (mainly modern) English-language poetry, and is particularly important in Old French, Spanish and Celtic languages.
Headlines • A cliché (from French, klɪ'ʃe) is a phrase, expression, or idea that has been overused to the point of losing its intended force or novelty, especially when at some time it was considered distinctively forceful or novel. The term is most likely to be used in a negative context. Cliché" applies also to almost any situation, plot device, subject, characterization, figure of speech, or object—in short, any sign—that has become overly familiar or commonplace. Because the novelty or frequency of an expression's use varies across different times and places, whether or not it is a cliché depends largely on who uses it, the context in which it is used, and who is making the judgment. The meaning of a particular cliché may shift over time, often leading to confusion or misuse Quote It is a cliché that most clichés are true, but then, like most clichés, that cliché is untrue.
Headlines A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. It also may be a substitution of a description of something or someone rather than the name, to avoid revealing secret, holy, or sacred names to the uninitiated, or to obscure the identity of the subject of a conversation from potential eavesdroppers. Some euphemisms are intended to be funny
Headlines Irony is a literary or rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or discordance between what a speaker or a writer says and what he or she means, or is generally understood. In modern usage it can also refer to particularly striking examples of incongruities observed in everyday life between what was intended or said and what actually happened. There is some argument about what is or is not ironic, but all the different senses of irony revolve around the perceived notion of an incongruity between what is said and what is meant; or between an understanding of reality, or an expectation of a reality, and what actually happens. Irony can be funny, but it does not have to be.
Types of irony • Most modern theories of rhetoric distinguish between three types of irony: verbal, dramatic and situational. • Verbal irony is a disparity of expression and intention: when a speaker says one thing but means another, or when a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect. • Dramatic (or tragic) irony is a disparity of expression and awareness: when words and actions possess a significance that the listener or audience understands, but the speaker or character does not. • Situational irony is the disparity of intention and result: when the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect. Likewise, cosmic irony is disparity between human desires and the harsh realities of the outside world (or the whims of the gods). By some older definitions, situational irony and cosmic irony are not irony at all.
Headlines METAPHORThe user interface of newspapers has been developed and standardized throughout centuries. Despite sociological differences, publishers and editors from different parts of the world can meet to discuss the content, role, and technology of newspapers--just as readers from different parts of the world can pick up a local paper and immediately know how to read it if the written language is known. The different elements of the newspaper interface are collectively known as the "newspaper metaphor". It is important to understand how the various elements of the newspaper work together before trying to transcode them into new media The front page is the most distinct feature of the newspaper format. It was invented 300 years ago.
Headlines pun (or paronomasia) is a phrase that deliberately exploits confusion between similar-sounding words for humorous or rhetorical effect. A pun may also cause confusion between two senses of the same written or spoken word, due to homophony, homography, homonymy, polysemy, or metaphorical usage. Walter Redfern has said: "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms". For example, in the phrase, "There is nothing punny about bad puns", the pun takes place in the deliberate confusion of the implied word "funny" by the substitution of the word "punny", a heterophone of "funny". By definition, puns must be deliberate; an involuntary substitution of similar words is called a malapropism. Puns are a form of word play, and occur in all languages, with the exception of Lojban.
Headlines • Repletion of words in headlines is for emphasis and very strong dramatic effect. Example : out out out . • Shared knowledge, many headlines assume shared cultural knowledge and shared general knowledge between the headline writer and the reader. This include the use of only first names or surnames of people are considered so well-known that stating their full name, position or title or reason for prominence is considered unnecessary. Example: kiss for Harry as he meets pop idols. • Simile is describing one thing by linking it to another Example: villagers sick as a parrot.
Resources • www.wecapedia.com