NEWSPAPER STYLE The structure of headings and texts
What is style? A functional style is a system of coordinated language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. English newspaper style can be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseologic- al and grammatical means which serve the purpose informing and instructing the reader.
Newspaper Genres 1. Brief news items and communiques; 2. press reports (parliamentary, of court decisions, etc.); 3. articles purely informational in character; 4. advertisements and announcements. As a means of mass communication it serves a) to inform, b) to influence public opinion.
HEADLINE Headline is the most concise form of giving information, it also carries appraisal: - the subject-matter (characteristic words), - emotionally colored words, - elements of emotive syntax. E.g.: Royal Family bows to public pressure to show its grief.
English Newspaper Headings,grammar features 1. Verbal phrases: FRANCO PLANS TRIAL 2. The verb «be» is often omitted: 255 RELEASED 3. Past events are denoted with present tense verbs: DIANA FINDS DEATH IN PARIS 4. Future actions may be expressed with infinitives: PHONE REPAIRERS TO STRIKE
HEAD INGS(continued) 5. Full declarative sentences: The World Mourns Diana the Princess of Wales 6. Interrogative sentences: What’s the difference? (The Sunday Telegraph) 7. Nominative sentences: Christmas in Lapland 8. Elliptical sentences: Lessons brought to life 9. Phrases with verbals: Not enough to laugh about 10. Questions (statements):The worse the better? 11. Complex sentences: Plan to teach runners who no longer race. 12. Direct speech: «Do the English blame the French for killing her?»
English Newspaper Headings,lexical and stylistic features 1. Colloquial words: MINISTRY OF FINANCE LIKES TO SAY «NO» 2. Alliteration: TEAMING IS TOPS FOR TRAINING 3. The English rule for writing headings: «Headlines should tell the story…». E.g.: ПРИЕЗД ДЕЛЕГАЦИИ --> UGANDA DELEGATION VISITS MOSCOW
BUSINESS STYLE I.R.Galperin calls the language of business documents a substyle of “Official Documents Style”. The aim: to reach agreement between two contracting parties. Terminology: economic terms (tax, revenue, non-sufficient funds, unlimited liability) Contractions: EU, L/C, A/R - account receivable, CF - cash flow, NB, Ltd., MV - market value, P/S - preferred stock, P/P.
Business style documents I. Economic treaties on a high level II. Between firms, concerns, companies, enterprises: a) contracts; b) letters. III. Within firms, companies: a) minutes; b) memos. IV. Outside the firm: a) information inquiry; b) advertisement. V. Personal business documents: a) references, b) resume, c) CV, d) a letter of resignation.