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Chapter 8: Adding a Disk — Unix Hard Disk Basics PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 8: Adding a Disk — Unix Hard Disk Basics

Chapter 8: Adding a Disk — Unix Hard Disk Basics

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Chapter 8: Adding a Disk — Unix Hard Disk Basics

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  1. Chapter 8: Adding a Disk—Unix Hard Disk Basics Installation and Configuration Barry Kane CMSC-691X

  2. Basic Steps • Choose Disk • Install Hardware • Create Device Files • Partition • Format file system • Configure, Label, & Mount

  3. Choose Disk • SCSI • IDE (ATA) • Fibre Channel • USB • FireWire (IEEE 1394 or iLink)

  4. SCSI • Small Computer System Interface • 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 or 160 MB/sec. • 7 to 15 devices per bus • Good at arbitrating multiple bus requests

  5. The Evolution of SCSI

  6. IDE • Integrated Drive Electronics • Inexpensive • competes for bus access (only one at a time) • max 2 devices/bus • Dependent on BIOS • First 1024 cylinders for boot access

  7. Connect the Disk • IDE- choose master or slave, and IDE bus number • SCSI - make sure cables are properly terminated. Pick device number.

  8. Low Level Format • Make sure device entry exists (/dev/xxxx) • Format the disk using manufactures programs -- most disks come preformated

  9. Partition • fdisk, pdisk, cdisk • File systems and swap • ext2 • Fat32 • Unix • Swap • HFS • Others....

  10. Create File System • Unix, Swap, or other file systems • mkfs or newfs • Check the file system - fsck • Also used to repair a fs with the -r option • Can walk through the fstab file and check partitions in the order specified by the Pass parameter

  11. Label and Mount • mount & umount • mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom • umount /mnt/cdrom • mount -a

  12. Label and Mount • /etc/fstab file • Device file or virtual file system • Mount point • File system type • Options • Dump • Pass#

  13. fstab file example

  14. Adding a Disk to Red Hat Linux • Install new disk • IDE • make sure bios can recognize • SCSI • scan SCSI bus for ID conflict • SCSI bios can low level format • if no interface boot to see if you must install a SCSI driver before the kernel can recognize the disk

  15. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • Ignore initial warnings about the partition table — partitioning after system booted • First check to see if device files exist • form /dev/sdXN • first on chain, first partition /dev/sda1 • If no device file then make them • /dev/MAKEDEV script • e.g., # cd /dev # ./MAKEDEV sda

  16. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • Ready for partitioning — fdisk • many variations — read man page for system • Good to make first partition small to ensure for old BIOS and other operating systems • Warning if greater than 1024 cylinders • for runtime software (e.g., LILO) • other OS boot & partition software • e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK

  17. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • fdisk program • interactive — press m for command list • command list • n to create a new partition • t to change the partition type • p to print the partition table • w to write the partition table to disk

  18. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont Command (m for help): new e extended p primary partition (1-4): p Partition number (1-4): 2 First cylinder (256-5721, default 256): 256 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (256-1275, default 1275): 511 • nothing changed on disk until you tell fdisk to write the partition table • room for four “primary” partitions but can”extend” by pointing to another table with four more

  19. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • 2nd partition — create a swap partition • change type to LINUX SWAP • 3rd partition — remainder of disk Command (m for help): type Partition number (1-4): 2 Hex code (type L to list codes): 82 Changed system type of partition 2 to 82 (Linux swap)

  20. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • Review Command (m for help) print Command (m for help) print Disk /dev/sda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 5721 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 1 255 204825683 Linux /dev/sda2 256 511 2056320 82 Swap /dev/sda3 512 5721 41849325 83 Linux

  21. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • If satisfied write the table to disk Command (m for help) write Command (m for help) write The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl( ) to re-read partition table. SCSI device sda: hdwr sector=512 bytes. Sectors=91923356 [44884] [44.9GB] sda: sda1 sda2 sda3 Syncing disks.

  22. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • Make a file system on your new partitions • mk2fs /dev/sda1 • mkswap -c /dev/sda2 • Check the new file system • fsck -f /dev/sda1

  23. Adding a Disk to Red Hat — cont • Mount the partition • mount /dev/sda1 /tmp • Enable swap • swapon /dev/sda2 • Check your workdf /tmpFilesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on/dev/hdb1 2071384 349816 1616344 18% / • Edit the fstab file to save your work for next time