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Exact Schemes

Exact Schemes

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Exact Schemes

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  1. Exact Schemes • Divides information into mutually exclusive groups • Category • Time • Location • Alphabet • Continuum

  2. Category Pertains to organization of good or services • Retail site often used this scheme • Different models, types, or questions • Enforced by color

  3. Time Organize events which happened over fixed duration • Calendar • Timeline

  4. Location Categorize and compare information which comes from different locales or sources • Multinational sites • Medical sites

  5. Alphabet • Dictionaries • Phone books • yahoo.com • When all else fails

  6. Continuum Organizes items by magnitude from small to large • Least expensive to most expensive • Ranking of preference • Order of importants

  7. Ambiguous Schemes • Divide information into categories which defy exact definition • Difficult to design and maintain • Difficult to use

  8. Ambiguous Schemes • Mired in language ambiguity Example: hit • To strike • To touch • Reach one’s goals • A success (top 40’s) • Baseball

  9. Ambiguous Schemes • More useful • More powerful • Allows for concept of “fuzzy”

  10. Ambiguous Schemes • Topical • Task-oriented • Audience specific • Metaphor driven • Hybrid schemes

  11. Topical Organizational method orders items by subject • Library of Congress • Table of Contents • Academic course listings

  12. Task-oriented Organizational scheme into collection of: • Functions • Services • Tasks

  13. Audience specific Useful when there are two or more audience types Bank has links for: • Individuals • Small Business • Corporations

  14. Metaphor driven • Use a metaphor to organize content • Inherents advantages/problems of metaphors

  15. Hybrid schemes • Combine multiple organizational schemes • Need clear separations or usability will suffer

  16. Organizational Structures • Defines relationships among groups created by organizational scheme • Crucial to design • Important in web site design

  17. Organizational Structures • Hierarchy • Database oriented • Hypertext • Form basis for web site navigation

  18. Organizational StructuresHierarchy • Structure according to rank or level Examples: • Family tree • Corporate structure • Books

  19. Organizational StructuresHierarchy Advantages: • Familiar • Successively refined detail Disadvantages: • True hierarchy requires backtracking

  20. Organizational StructuresHierarchy

  21. Organizational StructuresDatabase • Relational Database • Bottom-up approach • Searchable • Data-modeling can be time consuming

  22. Organizational StructuresDatabase

  23. Organizational StructuresHypertext • Non-linear way of structuring information • Connected hierarchically, non-hierarchically or both. • Flexible • Can be very confusing • Where am I

  24. Controlled Vocabulary • Web sites are collections of interconnected systems with complex dependencies • Meta-Data: data about data • Describes an organization across multiple terms

  25. Controlled Vocabulary Controlled Vocabulary: predetermined vocabulary of preferred terms that describes a particular domain Simplest: list of equivalent terms Complex: Thesaurus

  26. Controlled Vocabulary

  27. Synonym Ring Connected set of words which are defined as equivalent for purposes of retrieval

  28. Authority File List of preferred terms Acceptable values Example: • Postal codes • Common misspellings

  29. Classification Schemes • Hierarchical arrangements of preferred terms • Also called a taxonomy

  30. Thesaurus Book of: • Synonyms • Variant terms • Related terms • Opposite terms

  31. Controlled VocabularyThesaurus Terms

  32. Controlled VocabularyThesaurus Example

  33. Card Sorting • Method of created a controlled vocabulary • Creates sets of objects and verbs • Quick and cheap • Draws out users organize topics

  34. Card Sorting Differing types: • Open/Closes • Phrasing • Granularity • Heterogeneity • Cross-listing

  35. Visual Organization • Proximity • Alignment • Contrast • Consistency

  36. Visual Organization • Appearance Matters • Enforces content organization • Aids navigation • Influenced by human perception • Related to Page Design

  37. Proximity • Items close together are perceived as related • Group related items together • Separate unrelated items

  38. Alignment • Takes advantage of continuity to make objects appeared grouped • Virtual lines • Text alignment

  39. Contrast • Draws attention to items on page • Page with little contrast if hard to read

  40. Consistency • High degree of uniformity in layout • Consistency directly related to usability • Consistent site are much easier to navigate

  41. Consistency

  42. Page Layout

  43. Page Design • Related to visual organization • Provides balance between content organization and visual layout • Increases usability

  44. Page Scanning

  45. Page Size

  46. Page Size

  47. Top Of Page

  48. Wireframe • Blueprint for site page • Describes content and information architecture • Created for site’s most important pages • Not replacement for real visual design

  49. Wireframe

  50. Wireframe (LowFi)