Syllabus • An introduction to beer: facts, history, and uses • I encourage discussion and participation • I discourage questions • Mark breakdown: • 21% Midterm 1 • 21% Midterm 2 • 50% Final Project • .08 Blood alcohol level
Introduction – What is beer? • “An alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley, and flavored with hops and the like for a slightly bitter taste.” Source: dictionary.com • Global revenue of $294.5 billion in 2006 • That’s 133 billion Litre’s worth • Beer is found all over the world • Some of you may have even had beer!
An artists rendition of a world without beer • Notice the lack of fun • P.S. Sorry Family Guy
Beer in the ancient world • Beer dates back to around 6th century BCE • Most likely the result of spontaneous fermentation of breads • Beer was an important beverage in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and was used in religious ceremonies and as gifts to the pharaoh • 30,000 gallons a year was offered to the gods • Even the dead were buried with beer! • A medical document written around 1600 BCE lists 700 prescriptions, around 100 of which contain beer • The Greeks felt beer was an integral part of a healthy diet • They spread the art of brewing to the Romans, who spread it to Britannia
Beer in the medieval world • Monks built the first breweries, and were pioneers of the hotel; offering shelter, food, and drink to traveling pilgrims • Beer was generally brewed by women • They were cooks, and beer was considered “food-drink” • Beer was preferred over water, since it was often more sanitary • Beer also provided much needed calories to the generally low-calorie diets of the day • Though popular, beer was disdained by science because Ancient Greek physicians had no experience with beer • The use of hops in beer was written about in 822, but perfected in Germany in the 13th century • Until then it was difficult to establish the right proportion of ingredients • Hops allowed the beer to be exported
Beer in early modern Europe • By the 15th century, almost half of the cargo taken across the North sea and Baltic sea were barrels of beer • Beer making changed from a family activity to an artisan activity • Ale and beer became synonymous in the 16th century • William Shakespear’s father was an Ale Connor • Sat on ale in leather breeches to test for sugar • In the 16th century, The Dean of St Pauls invented the beer bottle • Also in the 16th century, Benjamin Franklin recorded the daily consumption in a London printing house to be five pints per employee • Lager is discovered after beer stored in cool caverns
Beer in the Industrial Revolution • The advent of the steam engine allowed for the industrialization of beer • Prior to the late 1700’s, malt was dried with fires made from wood charcoal, straw, or coke • They were not able to shield the malt from smoke, giving the malt a smoky flavour • Wood smoked malt was supposedly horrible • Using a hydrometer, brewers could calculate the yield from different malts • Pale malts gave the highest output, and coloured malts were added in small amounts to achieve the correct colour • The use of a drum roaster allowed for the creation of very dark, roasted malts, giving rise to stouts
After the Industrial Revolution • Bootleggers watered down their beer to increase profits during prohibition. This practice changed the American palette, which prefers milder beers to this day • In Europe, live beer (“real ales”) have become popular • Unfiltered, unpasteurized brews containing live yeast • Develop flavour and character over the course of several decades as opposed to several weeks or months
Ingredients • Water • Or “H2O” • Starch • The most important ingredient for providing character to a beer • Most common source is malted grain • Grain is soaked to expedite germination, then dried and roasted in a kiln • Hops • From the flower of the hop vine • Provide bitterness to balance the sweetness of the malt • Add floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours • Antibiotic properties favour brewers yeast over less desirable microorganisms • Preservative! • Yeast • Responsible for fermentation (metabolizing sugars from the malt) • Can influence the flavour of the beer • Clarifying Agent • Used to precipitate any leftover proteins after brewing • Spices and fruits • Love
Brewing • Mashing • The temperature of a water/starch mixture (usually malted barley) is raised to activate enzymes which break down the starch into fermentable sugars • Sparging • The mash is rinsed through a porous barrier called a lauter-tun that allows the fermentable liquid to pass, but not the grain. • This liquid is called the wort • Boiling • The wort is then boiled to steralize it, and remove the water so that only the sugars and other components remain. • Hops are added at this stage • The longer the hops boil, the more bitterness they add, but the less flavour they add • Fermentation • The boiled wort is cooled and put into a fermentation vessel along with yeast. The mixture is allowed to ferment anywhere from a week to a month. Yeast and sediment settle, and the resultant clear liquid is the beer. • Packaging • Beer is put into the vessel in which it will be served. • It can be carbonated artificially • It can also be carbonated naturally by adding small amounts of fresh wort, sugar, and/or yeast
Tasting • Aroma • Can come from the malt, strength of the hops, alcohol, esters, or other ingredients • Flavour • From the type and amount of malt used, flavour of the yeast, and the bitterness of the hops • Appearance • Colour, clarity, nature of the head • Mouthfeel • The feel of beer in the mouth, both from the thickness of the beer and from carbonation. Carbonation can cause the beer to seem creamy or prickly • Strength • Original gravity – the amount of fermentable material (density of the wort) • Final gravity – the density of the beer after fermentation • In dry beer, more sugar is converted to alcohol during fermentation, non-dry beer is thus sweeter • Alcohol by volume
Pop quiz! • What is the difference between beer, ale, and mead?
Pop quiz! • Mead is made from honey, water, and yeast • Honeymoon is derived from the month long supply of mead given to a newlywed couple in order to help conceive a child • Beer and ale are the same thing • Originally ale meant beer with no hops
Types of Beer • Ales • Use “top-fermenting” yeast which is unable to metabolize certain sugars. This results in a fruitier, sweeter beer. Top fermenting yeast rises to the top of the vessel during fermentation. • Fermented at higher temperatures than lager beer (15–23°C ) • Ale yeasts at these temperatures produce significant amounts of esters resulting in a flowery, fruity aroma • Pale ale • Brewed using a pale barley malt. Hop levels can vary. • Dark ale • Brewed using dark roasted barley malts. Also called stout. • Irish red ale • The red colour comes from the use of roasted barley. Has a malty, caramel flavour. • Cream ale • Brewed to be light in colour, hop and malt flavour is subdued. • Brown ale • Brewed with a darker barley malt, lightly hopped and fairly mildly flavoured with a slightly nutty taste.
Types of Beer • Lager • The most commonly consumed style • Fermentation occurs at around 7-12°C using a “bottom fermenting” yeast • “Fermentation phase” • Then cooled at 0-4°C • “Lagering phase” • The lager clears and mellows • Inhibits the production of esters, resulting in a “crisper” (less fruity) tasting beer • Has more fizz than ale • Premium Lager? No such thing.
Types of beer • Lambic • Brewed using wild, not cultivated yeasts. This is the style of beer people brewed until the middle ages. • This process is called spontaneous fermentation. Most cereals can undergo spontaneous fermentation by being exposed to the air.
Midterm 1: Match the glass types to their picture • Pilsner glass • Pint glass • Beer Stein • Wheat beer glass • Yard glass
Midterm 1: Match the glass types to their picture • Pilsner glass • For pilsner and light beers • Pint glass • Anything goes! • Beer stein • The lid keeps the beer in the glass while you sing a hearty tune • Wheat beer glass • The shape allows for greater production of foam, and exposure to air when tilted back • Yard glass • 1 yard long, 3 pint volume. Used in drinking games (drink the whole thing without pausing for breath!)
Nutrition • The good • Beer has no fat! Oil would ruin the head and mouthfeel. Some believe that overeating and a sedentary lifestyle cause the infamous “beer belly” and not the product itself. (bar food anyone?) • Moderate consumption of beer results in a decreased risk of cardiac disease, stoke, and cognitive decline • Brewers yeast is a rich source of nutrients including magnesium, selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin and B-vitamins • The bad • Heavy consumption of alcohol can lead to liver disease, pancreatitis, and gout • The ugly • Ugly people can look good when you’ve had too many beers
How much can you drink? Source: http://www.drunkdrivingdefense.com/general/bac.htm You burn 1.5% (0.015) per hour
Coors Molson Budweiser Alexander Keith’s Corona Stella Artois Labatt Fosters “The king of beers” "Miles away from the ordinary" "Brewed with pure rocky mountain spring water" “I am Canadian” “Australian for beer” “A whole lot can happen out of the blue” “The pride of Nova Scotia” “Reassuringly expensive” Midterm 2 – match the brand to the slogan
Festivals • Oktoberfest • 17 or 18 day festival celebrated in Germany • Attracts 6-7 million visitors annually • A special Oktoberfest beer is brewed, and the keg is tapped by the mayor of Munich to start the festival • The one sausage-fest worth going to • Great British Beer Festival • “The biggest pub in the world” • Over 450 beers from British breweries, and 200 foreign brands • Held during the first full week in August
Advertising • Beer advertisements are heavily censored • They cannot promote immoderate consumption • They cannot target minors • They can only be shown in T.V. ads where 70% of the audience is above the age of 21 (in the U.S.) • They cannot promote the effects of alcohol • They cannot drink beer during a T.V. commercial • Beer producers are extremely creative with their advertisements
Final Project • Koerners!